Tuai Iban ari Mukah dataika Limbang
|Tuai Iban Batang Mukah
Asal penatai Iban Oya enggau Mukah ari Skrang enggau Lemanak ka pindah ke Batang Poi enggau ai bukai di Kanowit dulu ari nya. Ari Kanowit bala Iban ngundur Batang Rajang lalu nama Sungai Kut napatka Batang Oya enggau Mukah. Ukai ga semua Iban Mukah beasal ari Skrang enggau Lemanak, bisi mega sekeda sida ari Bintangor enggau sungai-sungai mit bukai ke mati ba Batang Rajang. Menyadi aki kami ka benama Tindin ari Ulu Krian mega enggau orang pindah ke Mukah dalam taun 1930-an kelia. Sida iya berimba menua Nanga Sikat di ili Mukah.
|61 Ulu Mukah1 Penghulu Sana
2 Penghulu Umpoh
3 Penghulu Gerinsa
|Ili Mukah1 Penghulu Inting
2 Penghulu Sanggap
3 Penghulu Gaggat.
|Tuai Iban Batang Balingian, Mukah
Iban migration to the Mukah, Balingian, Anap and Bintulu Rivers.
After Penghulu Minggat had attacked the Iban of Ensiring, a man named Kelukau migrated with his followers from Julau to Mukah. He was later followed by Penghulu Takin and his people. From the Skrang Penghulus Jelani and Merdan led their people to migrate to Bintulu in the Fourth Division.
From the upper Krian, Penghulu Umpang, the son of Chambai, born at Nanga Dran, Paku, led his people to the Balingian River. He was the first Iban leader to migrate to the Balingian, a river located in today’s Third Division.
In 1858 when the Betong fort was completed, chief Bunyau of Rantau Anak was commanded by the Tuan Muda to recruit first-class fortmen to guard it. In carrying out this order, Bunyau placed his son Bakir “Bujang Brani” and his nephew Malina “Panggau” in charge of the fort. They were assisted by Bunyau’s other nephews Ringkai “Bedilang Besi” and Biju, together with Maan and Glegan.
In addition to them, Bunyau looked for some more men from the Paku. Linggir “Mali Lebu” the chief of Paku, arranged for his nephew Mula to be appointed, together with Kandau, Umpang, Ugong, Randi, Broke, Endawi and Dau. From the Rimbas came Kadam and Aban of Teru.
Two years after they had been working as fortmen, Kandau, Ugong, Randi, Mula, Broke and Umpang resigned from the service in order to go to Sabah on a trading expedition. The leader of this first trading venture was a brilliant young leader named Kedit of Batu Genting in the Paku. He was accompanied by Mambang, Umpang, Randi, Kangkik, Tumbing and Laman apai Muri. Umpang and Randi had saved money while working as fortmen. Their salary in the service in those years was $6/- per month.
When they arrived in Sabah they stayed at Papar. Nearby lived Dusuns, Muruts and Bajaus who had acquired jars from Chinese traders in exchange for padi and water buffalo. From surrounding villages they purchased jars using silver dollars, satawak and bendai gongs and bedil (cannons) they had bought along the coast during their voyage to Sabah. Kedit bought three jars, Bandi, Umpang, Mambang, Kangkit, Laman and Tumbing bought two each. After obtaining these jars, Kedit led his followers back, after a two-month trading sojourn in Sabah.
When they reached home, Umpang built his longhouse at Nanga Tagun on the main bank of the Paku River. While he and his followers were settled there, they were very successful in their farming, so that they were able to buy more jars and brass objects of various kinds from the local Malay traders, namely Abang Tek and Abang Chek, formerly of the Paku and Rimbas. After his voyage to Sabah, Umpang never again went trading in foreign lands. He was content to lead his people to tap wild rubber at Lundu and Samunsam near Cape Datu. From the Paku Umpang migrated in the Krian and settled near the source of that river. While he was here, he went to Kuching to meet the Rajah who knew him well from the days when he had served as fortman at Betong.
During his meeting with the Rajah, Umpang asked for approval to migrate to the Balingian, a river situated between the Mukah and Tatau Rivers near the boundary between the Third and Fourth Divisions of Sarawak. The Rajah told him that he had allotted that river to chief Linggir of the Paku, and all his followers were allowed to migrate there if they wished. “If you are Linggir’s man you can move to Balingian with not less than one hundred families as soon as you like,” said the Rajah. The Rajah also ordered that Umpang should become the leader of the migration to prevent all who followed him from quarreling about where to settle in the new area.
When he arrived home he told the Krian people that he had been permitted by the Rajah to lead the migration to the Balingian River. Hearing this, the Iban of Santebu, Abu and Nanga Grenjang came to join the migration to the new area. Altogether there were over one hundred families. After they had built large boats for the exodus, they left the Krian and went along the coast towards the Balingian River to settle at a place above Nanga Pelugau. After they had settled at this place, the Rajah appointed Umpang as Penghulu over the Iban of Balingian. Some years later when more Iban had joined them, Penghulu Abu was appointed in addition to him.
From his first settlement near Nanga Pelugau, Penghulu Umpang and his followers moved down and settled in the Arip tributary on the true left side of the Balingian. While here they profited from the high price of jelutong, as this type of wild rubber was plentiful in the vicinity. The money they earned from this commodity was invested in Mr. Ong Ewe Hai’s bank in Kuching.
When the price of jelutong was down, Penghulu Umpang persuaded the Iban to plant sago and rubber along the lower banks of the Balingian and its tributaries. Penghuiu Umpang had four sons, Mulok, Kantan, Ambun and Lembang. Besides these he adopted two daughters, Tiong and Lenta, and a son named Nyegang. He died at the age of ninety years and was greatly mourned by his people.
He was succeeded by his eldest son Mulok, who, following in his father’s footsteps, led his people to work hard in order to earn sufficient food and money. Some years after he had become Penghulu, Mulok’s household suffered from smallpox, which killed him, Kantan, Lembang and some others. After his death, Penghulu Mulok was succeeded by his brother Ambun. When he was Penghulu, Ambun led his people to plant rubber at Salian, adding to the rubber gardens he had planted with his deceased brothers. During the Japanese occupation, due to a false report, he was accused by the Japanese Military police (kempetai) of having collected followers to rebel against the government. Due to this, Penghulu Ambun was executed without trial by the kempetai at Mukah near the end of World War II. After Ambun’s death his only daughter and her family returned to their old country in the Paku River, where they have lived to the present day.
Iban migration to the Anap River was jointly led by Berasap and Berain in about 1888. After this river had been populated by Skrang and Saribas Iban, Berasap was appointed Penghulu of the downriver area, and Bunya of the upper river. Berasap was succeeded by Penghulu Taboh. When Taboh resigned he was succeeded by Penghulu Begok who, at his resignation, was succeeded by Penghulu Buan. In the upper river, when Penghulu Bunya resigned, he was succeeded by Penghulu Kana, who was succeeded by Penghulu Banying.
|62. Ili Balingian1 Penghulu Umpang ak Chambai
2 Penghulu Ugat
3 Penghulu Mulok ak. Umpang
4 Penghulu Ambun ak. Umpang
5 Penghulu Kinchang
6 Penghulu Danggat.
|Ulu Balingian1 Penghulu Abu
2 Penghulu Banyui
3 Penghulu Puh
4 Penghulu Ganja ak Baong
5 Penghulu Radin ak. Rumpang
|63. Bawan, Balingian1 Penghulu Unchi
2 Penghulu Lembang
3 Penghulu Beji
|Tuai Iban Bintulu
Iban Bintulu bechampur-champur, bisi sida datai ari Batang Ai, lalu sampal mega ari Batang Skrang enggau Batang Rajang. Sida iya mutus amat ati deka pindah, ukai nya semak menua tu kelia. Pemindah sida iya bisi ngena kapal ari Simanggang lalu napat Sebauh enggau Pendan. Bisi mega sida iya bedarat ari Pelagus, ngilika Batang Anap lalu nuju Tatau enggau Bintulu.
|Tuai Iban Tatau|
|64. Ili Tatau1 Penghulu Brasap
2 Penghulu Bair
3 Penghulu Tamboh ak Mat
4 Penghulu Bagok ak Mat
5 Penghulu Sarau ak. Berasap
6 Pengulu Buan ak. Siba
7 Penghulu Kalom ak. Latit
|Ulu Tatau1 Penghulu Bunya
2 Penghulu Banying
3 Penghulu Kana ak. Bajeng
5 Penghulu Nabau ak. Gasok
6 Penghulu Tayai ak. Rekan.
|65. Sebauh1 Penghulu Jelani anak Rekan
2 Penghulu Engkiong
3 Penghulu Jalin ak. Jelani
4 Penghulu Abok ak. Jalin.
|Iban Skrang Migration to Bintulu
Original source: Penghulu Jalin Anak Penghulu Jelani
Originally written by Mr. Francis Linggang
Submitted for weblog publication by Mr. Alfred AssanScouting for new land to settle:
During the last decade of the 1800, at the times of Rajah Charles Brooke, a number
|of Skrang Iban, led by Penghulu Jelani, went for a trading venture to the Bintulu region. While there, they look for wild rubber like jelutong, jangkar, kubal, dambar kelasau, nyatu rian and various rattan materials which they could trade for cash. They traveled to the Pandan area, Ulu Kemena, Sera region and eventually setting up base camp at Sebauh. This trading venture is also taken as an opportunity for them to scout for potential new settlement for their community in line with their past pioneering ancestors activities for sustainable development of their descendant.
After they returned to Skrang from this trading venture, Penghulu Jelani, together with two of his followers, Penghulu Merdan and Jengging, organized a trip to Kuching in 1884 (remembered as the year of Karakatau volcano eruption – Lampong Pechah). Their purpose was to meet with Rajah Charles Brooke and seek permission from him for his people to settle at their newfound land in the Bintulu region.
In Kuching, they went to the Istana and were escorted to meet Rajah Charles Brooke. Penghulu Jelani recalled in the later years that he was very much intimidated by the personality of the Rajah. When the Rajah asked him the purpose of his visit, Penghulu Jelani nervously explained that he would like to seek permission for his followers to settle at a place called Sera in Bintulu region. Rajah Charles Brooke immediately approved the request. He promised Penghulu Jelani that he would inform the Administrative Officer in Bintulu (Kunsil), Abang Galau, about his approval.
In 1886, Penghulu Jelani led his followers from Tajur, Skrang and migrated to Sera in Bintulu. Other people in the area also followed and they includes those from Rembai, Entulang, Mujan, Nyakai and their relatives who had settled in the Undup region decades earlier. As for Penghulu Jelani followers from Tajur, he had representatives from fifteen bilik joining him in his team. Their names were remembered as follows:
1. Penghulu Jelani Ak. Rekan – as Tuai Bala (Pioneer Leader)
Jamban Apai Tambong left the team to join East India Company to fight against the Matsalleh rebel in Sabah. He was replaced by a man named Bantam who had just returned from fortune seeking journey (pegi) to Salimbau Islands in Indonesia and to Kelantan in Peninsula Malaysia.
In Simanggang, they bought a large boat from the Balau dayak. They barter trade the boat with a large brass canon weighing 120 katies. Unfortunately, the boat did not have enough capacity to contain all of them and so some of them decided to rent a schooner named Serurai for $150.00. The left Simanggang town and traveled down the Batang Lupar river to its mouth and crossed the sea passing Saribas and Batang Rajang river mouth until they reached Bintulu town.
Arrival in Bintulu:
Penghulu Jalin and his men was the first Iban pioneer to arrive in Bintulu. Penghulu Merdan and his followers who followed them arrived later in a schooner called Sri Bongkos. Their schooner went aground on the sandy bank at the mouth of Bintulu River due to bad weather. Fortunately nobody was hurt in the incident and they reached nearby Bintulu town safely.
Bintulu was still a small town with about 20 Chinese shop houses. There was a limited road network, and shop buildings were still built on belian stilt with roof made from nipah palm leaves. The Government office was also made from wood, with roof made from split belian wood chips. It was located at the present government office in Bintulu town. There were only four workers in the office including Abang Galau, local Malay, as the Administrative officer.
There were only three houses in a Malay kampong at Sebiu. These people were originally belonging to a local tribe called Sagan. They were converted to Muslim and adopted a Malay lifestyle living in a separate village. Near Bintulu town is another small Malay village called Kampong Jepak, which still exist to this day.
There were only a few Iban seen at Bintulu town that time. They were not settlers but workers collecting jungle products for sale and waiting for any available boat to return to their own longhouse. The jetty at Bintulu town was made of a simple log to reach the place where boats were berthing. Across the river opposite Bintulu town was still a virgin jungle full of wild life.
Prices of goods and jungle products were still low in term of today’s monetary values even though money was hard earned. Padi would fetch $1.00 a basketful (sapasu), a plain cloth (belachu) fetched only 80 cents per roll and one pack of cigarettes (20 sticks lizard brand) cost 15 cents.
Note: Belachu clothing was very useful to the Ibans during the time. It was primarily used as lions cloth (sirat), towels (kain mandi), blankets (pua) and turban (labong).
Penghulu Jalin and his men stayed for three nights at Bintulu town. From there they borrowed a boat from a Malay village and moved up river. They paddled up the Kemena River and reached a place called Pulau Binai. It is a small island on the right hand side of the river. They stayed there for three nights performing a ritual called “ninggang burong” in their temporary hut (langkau arau).
Ninggang burong is a term the Iban used for a ritual they performed to leave behind bad bird omen and dreams. These they leave on their temporary hut. At the same time, they also seek a better omen birds and dreams to proceed with their journey until they reach a place where they wish to build their permanent settlement. The purpose is to seek blessing from God for a successful venture, to start a new life in the new territory and to pray for the success of their descendants in future.
On the third evening of their stay at the temporary hut, they went to the river to take their evening bath. As the bathing place is full, Jalin pulled out a boat and paddled to the opposite side of the river. In the middle of the river he berth the boat on branches of a tree that had fallen to the river. There he lay himself on the boat to take a short nap. When he woke up, he did not see the bathing place he had came down to take his bath earlier. He thought that he had been carried upriver by the rising tidewater. It was then that he realized that something had carried the boat upriver to Nanga Seleju above long stretch of water called Rantau Binai.
The strange thing that happens to him did not easily scare Jalin. He then paddled back to their landing place and took his bath there. That night Jalin dreamt that he met with a dragon. The place where he berths his boat earlier was actually a dragon head and not a fallen tree branches he had taught earlier.
The next day, they left their temporary hut and paddled upriver again until they reach a place near the mouth of Sebauh River, just across the present Sebauh town. There the build a semi-temporary house called dampa, where they would settle and farmed the area for about three years. They planted various fruit trees to lay claim to the area as their orchard (tembawai) for future their descendants. It was for this reason that their descendant earned the right to claim the area as their temuda to this day. This land has been cleared in 1948, to build a Government Primary School for the community.
When Jelani and his men were still living their dampa, there were only two Chinese shophouses built on top of a small hill owned by Ah Tzu and Ah Chai. Currently, a village clinic is built in its place near the present Sebauh bazaar.
Other tribes living in the area at this time were the Penan led by their Chief named Rumbok at Nanga Sebauh, Chief Serudu of Nanga Pandan and Chief Julak of Nanga Labang in upper Kemena. By this time the Penan populations have been dwindling drastically as most of them had been converted to Muslim and adopted a settled Malay lifestyle.
Arrival In Sera
After three years living in Sebauh, they moved to a new place called Sera in 1889, the place Jelani was asking for from the Raja Brooke in Kuching. Chaong apai Tayok was appointed as the first headman (Tuai Rumah) from 1889-1895. Under the leadership of Chaong, they cleared the land for farming at Seruai, Arau, Stajam and along the river between Sebauh and Nanga Sera. From Nanga Seruai, they moved again to the left bank of Sebauh. A primary school, SRK Hermanus Assan, is now built on this old longhouse site.
At this new longhouse, Chaong was succeeded by Bantan apai Linggang as the new headman from 1894-1913. Bantam was formerly their “tuai burong” when they first migrated from Skrang. The settled here for twelve years and moved for the third time to a hill on the opposite side of Sebauh river called Tembawai Tinting.
Under the leadership of Bantan, they farmed at the area at upper Stajam, Seruai, Sera, kelibai, Nansang and to Nanga Dajang. They settled at Tembawai Tinting for seven years. It was here that they decided to make agreement with the Kajebai tribe to clear the land together for farming.
Land Use and Ownership Agreement:
Other settlers at Nanga Kaloi led by Gerina also moved out towards upper Kamena River and first settled at a place called Teban. Other group led by Serit, Meliau Apai Saging and Rampai Apai Bada brought their followers to Sebauh and settled together with the Penghulu Jalin in Sera. Another group led by Penghulu Renang moved to Sebangkat area, not far downriver from Sebauh. Jengging settled at Senga while Indai Kelawin settled at Ensaie, both in Sebauh region.
Another small group to arrive in Sebauh region were led by Sigan Apai Mari who settled at Senggam. Another group led by Besi Apai Ngunan settled at Sekabai and Bu Apai Ambong settled at Gerong, upper Sebauh. Another small group led by Bu apai Panggau who settled at Sekutan, seek permission from Penghulu Jelani to settle at Sera, as he had not make any formal request from the Rajah for any area in the region to settle in. Penghulu Jelani gave them the permission to settle at Nanga Sabetong in the tributary of Tisei River.
At about the same time, the Kejebai people led by Rampai Apai Bada, Meliau Apai Saging and headman Serit also seek agreement from Penghulu Jelani to farm together with them at Sera while waiting to acquire suitable place to settle down. Penghulu Jelani and his men lay down their condition to allow the Kejebai people to farm together with them, as follows:
1. The Kejebai people to farm the place on temporary basis and shall have no permanent or future claim to their farmed area. The land they cleared and farmed is the property of Penghulu Jelani’s followers.
2. The Kejebai people shall not lay any claim to their farmed area in future.
3. All the fruit trees that grew on all the Kejebai farmed area belong only to Penghulu Jelani’s followers.
Sera People were represented by:
The Kejebai people were represented by:
After the gathering, Penghulu Jelani requested that TR Serit and his Kejebai people to build their house temporarily between the Sera area and the Senggam. Until to this day, some of the Kejebai people still live in that area, as they have nowhere to live. Their headmen were Serit, succeeded by Meliau, then Rampai, then Rinting and currently TR Juna.
When Penghulu Jalin died in 1908, they were still living at Tembawai Tinting under TR Bantan. From Tembawai Tinting, Ningkan, Guyak and Meta separated from the group and moved to a place called Semebak in 1911. Meta separated from the group and moved with his followers to Suai region in 1915 where their descendant settled to this day.
TR Bantan and his followers moved out of Tembawai Tinting and settled at Tembawai Anak Raja. In this new settlement, Bantan was succeeded by Jalin Anak Mambang as the headman from 1913-1932 (19 years). During Jalin’s time, the Government appointed Betie as Penghulu, succeeding the late Penghulu Jalin. Betie became Penghulu for four years only. He stepped down and was replaced by Jelani Anak Penghulu Jalin to continue his late father’s legacy as leader of the Sera people.
From Tembawai Anak Raja, they moved for the fifth time to Tembawai Pisang on the right bank of Sebauh River. In 1932 TR Jalin Anak mambang stepped down as the headman and led his follower to migrate to Niah region. He was succeeded by Akat Anak Buja who became the headman for one year only (1932-1933). Akat was succeeded by Nilie Anak Rurong as headman from 1933-1955 (22 years).
During his time as the headman of Sera people, Nilie led his people to settle at Nanga Dajang in Sera in 1934. From this new site they cleared the land on the left bank of upper Sera as far as Nanga Rud. They settled down at Nanga Dajang for five years before moving again for the seventh time, in 1939 to a place called Tembawai Kota also known as Tembawai Bukit on the right bank of Sera river. In 1955, Nelie was succeeded by TR Anggat Anak Manjan as the headman. He served as the headman for 16 years from 1955-1971.
In this new settlement, Penghulu Jalin Anak Penghulu Jelani retired from his penghuluship. He was succeeded by his son Penghulu Abok in 1948. Penghulu Abok was also appointed as Councillor of Bintulu District Council after he won an election uncontested representing Sungai Sebauh constituency from 1963-1965. From 1965 – 1969, Penghulu Abok was a member of State Legislative Council. In 1969, he stand for state election representing Kemena District under Pesaka Political Party. In 1970, he was appointed as Minister of Local Government which he held until 1974. After that he did not seek re-election but remained serving the government as Temenggong until his retirement in year 2002.
During the time of TR Anggot Anak Manjan as headman, he led his people in planting rubber tree as cash crop in 1959. By 1963, the Sera community co-operated to build a school which they named Hermanaus Assan School. The school was build with the co-operation of people from TR Anggot of Sera, TR Juna of Kejebai, TR Gerang of Tisei and TR Nyanggau of Ulu Tisei. The school was named after Mr. Hermanaus Assan Anak Penghulu Jalin, in his honor for being the first Iban in Sarawak to hold a position of District Officer (DO) serving the British Colonial Government, before Sarawak’s Independence in Malaysia. The school became a Government Aided school in 1973 after 13 years as private school.
The Hermanaus Assan School was officiated by the Bintulu Head of Forestry Department, Mr. Belly on 5th January, 1963. The school registered 50 students in its first year and the first teached to teach there was Chegu Hossaini Nahrawi from Kampong Jepak, Bintulu.
During the time of TR Anggot, they moved back to their former place at Tembawai Anak Raja on the right bank of Sebauh, in 1958. By 1971, he was succeeded by TR Sigie Anak Ugam as headman from 1971-1979 for 8 years. Sigie was succeeded by TR Tabor Anak Lasah from 1979 until today (2008). During his time, TR Tabor led his people to move to a site near the present Hermanaus Assan Primary school, in 1992.
The Breakaway Group:
In 1932, TR Meliau Apai Saging moved to Labang and settled under the leadership of Chupong. Bandan Apai Jimbun followed him from Sera and few others from Gerong, in upper Sebauh. They build their longhouse at Nanga Bejuak in Ulu Labang and stayed there until present day.
During the Japanese occupation in 1942, TR Rinting of Kejebai tribe decided to move to Segan tributary. They settled at Nanga Nasau in upper Segan. After the Japanese left in 1945, they moved back to their old Kejebai settlement. In 1957, not satisfied with the agreement they made with Sera people, TR Ranting moved with some of his followers back to Kebulu Jelalong in upper Kemena. The Kejebai people remain there to this day.
The other Kejebai people led by Juna Anak Beliang decided to stay in Sera knowing very well that they do not have ownership to any farmland there. They decided to ask for an ownership to a plot of land from Temenggong Abok Anak Penghulu Jalin, the leader of the Sera people at the time. After consultation with his people, Temenggong Abok agree to give the Kejebai people ownership to a plot of land for them to farm. The land is now located at the site of the present Juna longhouse. Both parties verbally sealed the agreement in 1959, witnessed by Sarawak Administrative Officer, Mr. William Linang at Sebauh Government Office.
At Senggam, one of the Sigan follower named Indai Kerenyit died and was the first to be buried at Senggam cemetery. As she was the first to be buried there, she was given a wooden padi grinder, wooden motar and pounder during her burial. Sigan was succeeded by his son Mari as the headman and Mari was later succeeded by his son Laying.
The Neighboring Allies and Kindred (Sapemakai Menoa).
Their boundaries have been clearly demarcated with large portion of the land belongs to the Sera people (approx. 18,000 hectres). It is now the 6th generations of the original Skrang pioneer to Sera and Sebauh region spanning more than a century of peaceful existence. The future generations must preserve their local history, especially with regards to the land ownership and avoid disputes with neighboring settlers. They must remember the hardship of the pioneering days in clearing the lands for future generations.
|66. Pendan1 Penghulu Meredan
2 Penghulu Renang
3 Penghulu Jana
4 Penghulu Saang
|Tuai Iban Miri
Maya pegai Raja James Brooke kelia iya enda tentu manah enggau Iban tang angkun ka bansa Bidayuh, Melayu enggau Melanau. Kabuah pia laban bansa Iban balat amat ngelaban ba pun penatai iya megai menua Sarawak ari 1841 ngagai 1861. Datai ba Charles Brooke iya manah enggau bansa Iban, laban Iban udah nulung perintah ngaluska menua talukka perintah tang taja pia dataika taun 1927 Suai, Niah enggau Sibuti menua enda tau alai Iban, laban menua nua diungkupka perintah ngagai bansa Melanau enggau Kedayan. Sepengudah Raja Vyner Brooke 1917 baru tagang tu dikemaduka, laban Iban enda ulih ditagang pindah.
|67. Suai, Miri
Migration to the Niah and Suai Rivers
The first Iban migration to the Niah River took place in 1934 when Awang Itam was a Native Officer at the Niah sub-District Office. The first group of migrants was led by Panau of Skaloh from the Skrang and Undup Rivers in the Second Division.
A month later came Renggan and his followers from the Tatau River. Renggan and his people migrated to Niah to follow his uncle Lium who had married a Penan woman named Durang, the sister of Tabilan of the Niah River. Three years after the arrival of Panau and Renggan and their followers, Manggoi and Andam came to the Niah River with their followers from Simanggang. The rest of the Niah Iban arrived later than these three groups. After the Niah River had become thickly populated with Iban, the Rajah appointed Manggoi to be the first Penghulu in that area.
The first Iban chief to migrate to the Suai River was Utik, son of Tugang of Bangat, Skrang. He was the nephew of the well-known warrior Jabu apai Umping of the Bangat in lower Skrang. After he had become friendly with the local Penans, Untik went home to call his relatives to join him. These people now live at the house of Mamat, a son of Utik, at Basri Dangkar in the upper Suai River. The second Iban group to come to the Suai was led by ex-Police Inspector Gindi from the Undup near Simanggang.
Before the Iban migrated to Niah, it is said that the Penan roamed about in the forest hunting wild animals for food. They did not farm, as did the Dayak, but depended on the pantu palm for their staple food. When they first met the Iban, they did not want to eat rice. With regard to burial, the Penan had no special cemetery, but just buried their dead underground anywhere or in holes in trees in the forest. After they lived together with the Iban for some time, the Penan began to make for themselves a special graveyard at Nanga Kelebus. Now this cemetery is used by the Iban, while the Penan buries their dead in the Moslem graveyard.
Manggoi said that when he first came to Niah in 1934, he found that the Niah, Sibuti and Suai Rivers were still thickly populated by Penans, the original inhabitants. The first man he met on his arrival was a Penan chief, Duman, wfto lived with his people in a longhouse at Nanga Lemaus. At this meeting Duman assured Manggoi that they surely could live peacefully together in the Niah River. Eventually after the death of Duman, his son-in-law Pajawing was appointed to succeed him as chief. Unfortunately two years later he died. After the death of Pajawing the Penan community dispersed. Some moved to Suai and lived under chief Sogon, while those who remained at Niah moved downriver to live together with the Malays and eventually adopted their religion. In recent years only a few have remained pagan; those live together with their semi-chief Tabilan along the Tanjong Belipat.
Eventually, at the turn of the century, the Skrang, Saribas, Batang Ai and other adjacent rivers of the Second Division of Sarawak became badly over-populated, which caused many of the people of these rivers to migrate to new places like the Mukah, Balingian, Oya, Bintulu, Anap, Tatau and Baram Rivers. Later, because of the same problem, as well as to follow their kindred who had already migrated, many more Iban from the Second and Third Divisions applied to the Government either to migrate to the places mentioned above or to migrate elsewhere, to unexplored rivers, such as the Suai, Niah, Belait and Limbang.
1 Penghulu Manggui (Skrang)
2 Penghulu Kabu (Skrang)
3 Penghulu Jawi ak. Manggui.
Iban migration to Sibuti.
In 1927 Sergeant Barat and T.R. Dian anak Kinchang applied for permission from H.H. the Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, to migrate to Sibuti. Their application was approved and Dian went first to live in Sibuti in the same year. In the following year ex-Sergeant Barat came with his followers and joined Dian’s longhouse at Mamut. They lived together at this settlement for five years, and then separated in order to expand their agricultural lands.
After they had separated, Dian and Barat visited the Undup near Simanggang for the purpose of inviting their relatives and friends to migrate with them to Sibuti. After they had persuaded enough followers, they returned to Sibuti. On Dian’s return he moved down to live at Pidek, while Barat and his followers stayed on at Mamut.
In 1927, when Dian and his followers first arrived in Sibuti, the first important thing he did was to cleanse the land with the blood of five pigs as was the Iban custom. Two of the pigs were killed at Nanga Bakas, two at Mamut, and one when Dian built his first longhouse in the land. Three years after he had settled in Sibuti, T.R. Lutin and T.R. Unal followed from Undup. On their arrival Dian and Barat advised T.R. Unal and his followers to live at Kelitang, while T.R. Lutin was told to settle with his people at Kuap in the Ulu Sibuti. In 1927 before H.H. The Rajah approved their application to migrate, he asked them to develop the Sibuti lands for agricultural purposes other than rubber planting. If they obeyed His Highness’s wish, the Rajah promised not to tax their labour. It was because of this command that no land taxes were demanded from these settlers before the Second World War.
During the Japanese occupation many of them planted rubber trees in the area. These trees are today tappable, which gives the Sibuti Iban a little money in addition to the return from their yearly padi crop. All the Iban migrants to Sibuti from the Second Division were animists, or people lapsed from the Anglican Church. The animists still held to their ancestral religion up to a few years ago, at which time the Roman Catholic and Anglican Missions came to proselytize. At present very few have been converted, as they are reluctant to forget their ancestral religion founded by Petara Simpulang Gana, Singalang Burong and Anda Mara, the religion of their ancestors from ages past. They are at the present time still celebrating many traditional festivals, such as the Gawai Batu, Gawai Umai and Gawai Burong.
On their arrival in 1927, the first cemetery they made in Sibuti was Pendam Keseput, where they buried Buli anak Busor, the first man to die in the new country.
Before the Iban migrated to Sibuti from the Saribas River in the Second Division, Nyauh anak Ambok who had married at Malang in the Bakong, Baram, wrote a letter to Orang Kaya Janai, a Miri by race (or Mirek) and a chief of the Sibuti River, to apply for land in this river to which he might migrate.
The Orang Kaya Janai told Nyauh that he would accept him and his followers to come and settle in the Sibuti. After gaining this approval, Nyauh from Malang wrote a letter to his mother Rini at Lubau in the Saribas, telling her that he had found good land for settlement in the Sibuti River. In her reply Rini told Nyauh that she had no intention of leaving Saribas. On learning this Nyauh and his wife visited her in the Saribas, but while they were there his wife died. Due to her death Nyauh completely dismissed the idea of migrating elsewhere.
Some years later, his cousin Jeragan, who lived at Bakong, Baram, wrote a letter to Nyauh. He said, “It will be a great loss to you, if you fail to migrate to the land which has been given to you by Orang Kaya Janai in Sibuti.” On receiving this encouraging letter, Nyauh again urged his mother to migrate with him. “If I fail to take this fertile land in Sibuti, I am sure it will be an irreparable loss to you and me as well as to our future descendants,” said Nyauh to his mother. Hearing her son’s decision, Rini agreed to follow him.
After his mother had agreed to migrate, Nyauh invited Mulok anak Malina and Entering anak Jiram of Lubau to see the new land in the Sibuti. When they came they found that Orang Kaya Janai had died, so they met with his successor, T,K. Haji Mat of Sibuti.
On meeting them, before he could permit their migration, as approved by the late Orang Kaya Jenai, Haji Mat gathered all the Malay, Dale’ and Miri leaders in the Sibuti together. At this meeting these leaders approved the applications of the Undup Iban from the Batang Lupar. To confirm their agreement Haji Mat wrote a letter for the Saribas Dayaks to take to the Resident, Mr. Aplin at Miri.
When Mr. Aplin met them, he sent them back to Sibuti to see Wan (now Tuanku) Bujang, to discuss again the Saribas Iban migration with the Sibuti chiefs. After the discussion was over Wan Bujang directed Abang Entassin to survey the land in the Bakas stream, a left tributary of the Sibuti into which these Iban would migrate. After the land had been surveyed, the Iban were given all the land above the Kedayan settlement at Nanga Bakas.
After the Saribas migration to Sibuti had been agreed to by the Government, Mr. Aplin ordered Nyauh and his followers to return to Saribas via Kuching, in order to bring a letter to the Resident of the First Divison. On their arrival at Kuching, the Resident of the First Division sent them to H.H. The Rajah. They met His Highness who approved of their migration but would not allow them to leave Saribas until ex-Sergeant Barat and his followers had proved that they could live on friendly terms with the indigenous people in Sibuti.
Some weeks after they had arrived at Lubau in the Saribas, a Malay Native Officer called them to the Betong fort. This Officer told them that their application to migrate to Sibuti had been cancelled by the Government. If they wanted his help he told them, he would consult the Government on their behalf. Hearing this, Nyauh became worried. He and his two friends went to Sibuti to ask why they were no longer allowed to migrate after the Rajah had approved the movement. When they came to Sibuti they were told by Wan Bujang that there had been no such change of attitude towards their migration. So they returned to the Saribas. They did not see this Malay Native Officer at Betong fort again.
Three years after ex-Sergeant Barat had migrated to Sibuti, Nyauh and his Saribas Dayaks came to the area by chartered Chinese launch. This launch made three trips to transport them at a total cost of $1,500/-. The price of rubber at this time was $37- per picul. At this time, in 1932, ex-Penghulu Asun, rebel chief of Entabai, was at the height of his power. On their arrival in the Sibuti they first hired land for farming from Wan Mahmud of Nanga Satap. After the harvest was over, they moved up to Nanga Bakas where they made offerings (tasih ai) to the God of water by sacrificing three medium-sized pigs. After this, they built their first longhouse at Tembawai Tinting, inside Kadayan land above Nanga Bakas.
After the Sibuti River had become thickly populated with Second Division Iban, the Rajah appointed ex-Sergeant Barat to be the first Penghulu of the area.
1 Penghulu Barat (Undup)
2 Penghulu Mancha (Undup).
Iban migration to the Baram.
After the Batang Baram region was ceded by the Sultanate of Brunei to the Raj of Sarawak, some Sea Dayak leaders of the Second and Third Divisions applied to the Second Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke, G.C.M.G., for approval to migrate to the area.
Early in the 1890s Berendah of Skrang migrated with his followers and was ordered by the Resident Mr. Charles Hose to settle at Dabai above the present town of Marudi. After him came Kalang, also from Skrang, with a group of settlers. They were asked by Mr. Hose to settle at Sungai Berit above Lubok Nibong. Two years later another group came, led by Inggir of the Batang Lupar. Inggir and his people were given land by the Resident at Sungai Nipa, a left tributary of the Bakong. About three years later Rhu, Leban, and Apai Samban came from Skrang, and they were ordered to live in the Bakong proper. At the end of that year came Jampu, also from the Skrang, and he was asked by Mr. Hose to settle at Sungai Liam, another tributary of the Bakong River.
In 1896 Ngadan, a son of the well-known Chulo “Tarang” apai Dungkong of the Krian, Kalaka, came with Saribas people to settle at Malang, a branch of the Bakong River. His brother Tujoh. Who was the seventh child of Chulo “Tarang” (Tujoh means “seven”), and his cousin Jampang whose nickname was “Pintu Meru”, and a third son of Kedit “Rindang” of the Paku separated themselves from Ngadan. Tujoh led his followers to settle at Puyut, while Jampang settled at Lubok Nibong above the town of Marudi.
It was during this migration that Jampang and his brother-in-law, Graman “Tungkat Langit” of the Padeh, took a famous guchi jar with them to the Baram. This was the jar which Graman’s grandfather, the OKP Dana “Bayang”, looted when he fought against the Undup Dayaks near Simanggang in the days of the first Rajah. This jar was thought to bring luck; therefore all Dayaks who knew its legend were eager to drink water from it. At present, it is in the possession of Badong, a grand-daughter of Jampang of Lubok Nibong, Baram.
After the arrival of these Skrang, Saribas and Batang Lupar migrants in the Baram, Ganai “Buloh Balang” came from Bangat in the Second Division. He and his followers were ordered by Mr. Hose to live at Biar on the Bakong River. The rest of the Iban migration to the Baram took place after the year 1900. When the Iban first arrived in the Baram they met with the Narom people who lived below Marudi. Although the Naroms have all been converted to Islam now, they still live separately from the ordinary Malays at Marudi who profess the same religion. The Naroms speak their own language as well as Iban and Malay.
A decade after the first Iban had migrated to the Baram, a man named Jawa from Sabelak in the Krian brought his followers to Limbang. Shortly after their arrrival the Kadayan along the Mandalam tributary rebelled against the government. Munan, the Penghulu Dalam of Sibu, and Kalong “Mali Lebu” of Paku were commanded by the Rajah to quell the trouble with their Iban forces.
70. Bakong, Baram
1 Penghulu Inggir (Batang Ai)
2 Penghulu Rhu (Batang Ai)
3 Penghulu Giang datai ari Entulang, Undup di ili Batang Lupar)
4 Penghulu Arin (Batang Ai) ichit Penghulu Inggir.
|71. Batang Baram1 Penghulu Kalang (Skrang)
2 Penghulu Enjop (Julau)
3 Penghulu Apai Uban (Skrang)
4 Penghulu Goyang (Bintang Bunam Batang Rajang)
5 Penghulu Mara
6 Penghulu Sait (Skrang)
|Tuai Iban Limbang
Pemindah Iban ke Limbang nyadi ba renggat ka penudi, dalam antara taun 1900 ngagai 1941 apin Perang Dunya ke-2. Di Limbang bala Iban ari Simanggang, enggau Kalaka-Saribas napatka Pandaruan enggau Lubai laban ngagai taun 1931 semina menua dua nya aja dikemendarka alai Iban diau .
|72. Limbang.1 Penghulu Wi
2 Pengarah Ngang ak. Sundar.
|73. Medamit, Limbang1 Penghulu Gawan ak. Jangga.|