ETNIK: Iban dalam kronologi Sarawak

1292 Brunei destroyed by earthquake.

1521 Spaniards under Pigafetta visit Brunei.___Antonio Pigafetta (1491 – 1534) was an Italian scholar and traveller from the Republic of Venice. He travelled with the Portuguese explorerFerdinand Magellan and his crew on their voyage to the Indies. During the expedition, he became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal which later assisted him in translating one of the Philippine languages, Cebuano. It is the first recorded document concerning this language.

Out of approximately 240 men who set out with Magellan in 1519, Pigafetta was one of only 18 who returned to Spain in 1522, having completed the first circumnavigation of the World, under the captainship of Juan Sebastián Elcano after Magellan’s death. His journal is the source for much of what we know about Magellan and Elcano’s voyage.  At least one warship of the Italian Navy, a destroyer of the Navigatoriclass, was named after him in 1931.

Pigafetta belonged to a rich family of Vicenza. In his youth he studied astronomy, geography and cartography. He served on board the ships of the Knights of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century. Until 1519, he accompanied the papal nuncio, Monsignor Chieregati, to Spain.

In Seville, Antonio Pigafetta heard of Magellan’s planned expedition and elected to embark, accepting the title of sobrasaliente(supernumerary) and a modest salary of 1,000 maravedís. During the trip, Pigafetta collected extensive data concerning the geography, climate, flora, faunaand the inhabitants of the places that the expedition visited. His meticulous notes were invaluable to future explorers and cartographers, mainly due to his inclusion of nautical and linguistic data, and to latter-day historians because of its vivid, detailed style. The only other sailor to maintain a journal during the voyage was Francisco Albo, last Victoria’s pilot, who kept a formal logbook.

A 2002 film (Lapu-Lapu) about the Philippine hero Lapu-Lapu depicts Antonio Pigafetta as a member of Magellan’s expedition on the island of Cebu.  The 2010 book of poems Pigafetta Is My Wife by Joseph Hall incorporates portions of Antonio Pigafetta’s account of Magellan’s voyage, “taking the notion of circumnavigation to an unforeseeable confessional level.” (Dan Beachy-Quick)

1526 Portuguese under Jorge Menezes visit Brunei.___Jorge de Menezes was a Portuguese explorer who in 1526-27 landed on Waigeo Island (now part of Indonesia), taking shelter in the town of Wasai whilst he awaited the passing of the monsoon season. He named the region Ilhas dos Papuas and is thus credited with the European discovery of Papua. He was the Portuguese Governor of Ternate which was first visited by the Portuguese in 1512.

1530 Portuguese under Gonsavo Pereira visit Brunei.___Gonsavo Pereira yang melawat Brunei pada 1530 menjelaskan lagi tentang kepesatan perdagangan di Sarawak yang beliau rujukkan sebagai Cerava.

“Manakala pengaruh daripada Kerajaan Brunei pula membawa kepada pemantapan Peradaban Melayu di Sarawak. Peranan orang Melayu dikembangkan bagi mentadbir wilayah-wilayah di Empayar Brunei.

“Di Sungai Sarawak misalnya, terdapat tiga ketua orang Melayu yang mempunyai kuasa untuk memerintah Sarawak, iaitu Datu Patinggi, Datu Bandar dan Datu Temenggung. Tugas mereka ialah menjaga kebajikan penduduk dan mengutip cukai.

1576 Francesco la Sande, Governor of the Philippines, installs Sri Lela as Sultan of Brunei.

1580 Bruneis defeat Spaniards, depose of Sri Lela and restore Saif al Rajah as Sultan.

1600 Dutch under Oliver van Noort visit Brunei.___Olivier Van Noort_NOORT, Olivier Van (nort), Dutch navigator, born in Utrecht in 1568; died after 1621. Some merchants of his country equipped an expedition to go to the South sea by the Strait of Magellan, and Noort received the command. He left Rotterdam on 13 September, 1598, touched at Rio Janeiro, but was driven back, and along the coast suffered many losses by the attacks of the Indians. He resolved to winter in the deserted island of Santa Clara, whence he sailed again on 2 June, 1599. On the 29th he discovered an island near the coast of Patagonia, and stopped there to repair damages. On 23 November he entered the Strait of Magellan, and landed on the northern coast, where he was attacked by the Indians and suffered many losses. Soon afterward he anchored among the Penguin islands, and subsequently he discovered the bays of Olivier, Mauritius, and Henry, but could not explore the latter on account of the ice. On 6 February he left the Strait of Magellan, and, entering the South sea, sailed along the Chilian and Peruvian coasts, pillaging and burning as he went, and capturing several Spanish ships. The viceroy, Luis Velasco, sent a fleet to capture him, but Noort sailed for the Ladrone group. He pillaged the Philippines, visited Java and Borneo, and, sailing round the Cape of Good Hope, arrived at Rotterdam, 26 August, 1601. A narrative of his voyage was published under the title of “Beschrijving van de moeyelyke reis rondom de werldaar de globe, door Olivier van Noort, waarin zyne vreem de lotgevallen in voorkomen” (Amsterdam, 1612; German translation by Gotthard Arties, Leipsie, 1613; French translation, Antwerp, 1613).

Oliver van Noort was the first Hollander to sail around the world. Incidentally, he was the fourth navigator to succeed in this dangerous enterprise since in the year 1520 the little ships of Magellan had accomplished the feat of circumnavigating the globe.

Of the hero of this memorable Dutch voyage we know almost nothing. He was a modest man, and except for a few lines of personal introduction which appear in the printed story of his voyage, which was published in Rotterdam, his home town, in the year 1620, in which he tells us that he had made many trips to different parts of the world, his life to us is a complete mystery.

He was not, like Jacob van Heemskerk and Van Neck, a man of education; neither was he of very low origin. He had picked up a good deal of learning at the common schools. Very likely he had been the mate or perhaps the captain of some small schooner, had made a little money, and then had retired from the sea.

Spending one’s days on board a ship in the latter half of the 16th century was no pleasure. The ships were small. The cabins were uncomfortable, and so low that nowhere one could stand up straight. Cooking had to be done on a very primitive stove, which could not always be used when the weather was bad. The middle part of the deck was apt to be flooded most of the time, and the flat-bottomed ships rolled and pitched horribly. Therefore, as soon as a man had made a little competency as the master of a small craft he was apt to look for some quiet occupation on shore. He had not learned a regular trade which he could use on shore.

In the year 1595 we find Oliver van Noort described as the owner of the “Double White Keys,” an ale-house in the town of Rotterdam. He might have finished his days there in peace and prosperity, but when Houtman returned from his first voyage and the craze for the riches of the Indies, or at least a share thereof, struck the town of Rotterdam, Van Noort, together with everybody else who could borrow a few pennies, began to think of new ways of reaching the marvelous island of Java, made of gold and jewels and the even more valuable pepper and nutmeg.

Van Noort himself possessed some money and the rest he obtained from several of his best customers. With this small sum he founded a trading company of his own. He petitioned the estates general of the republic and the estates of his own province of Holland to assist him in an expedition toward the “Kingdom of Chili, the west coast of America, and if need be, the islands of the Moluccas.” To make this important enterprise successful, the estates general were asked to give Van Noort and his trading company freedom of export and import for at least six voyages, and to present it with ten cannon and twelve thousand pounds of gunpowder.

He asked for much in the hope of obtaining at least part of what he desired. In the winter of 1597 his request was granted. He received four guns, 6,000 pounds of bullets, 12,000 pounds of gunpowder, and a special grant which relieved him of the customary export tax for two voyages. This demand for cannon, gunpowder, and bullets gives us the impression that the expedition expected to meet with serious trouble. That was quite true.

The southern part of America was the private property of the Spaniards and the Portuguese. Anybody who ventured into those regions flying the Dutch colors did so at his own peril. Among his fellow-citizens Van Noort had the reputation of great courage. Nobody knew any precise details of his early life, but it was whispered, although never proved, that many years ago, long before the days of Houtman, he had tried to reach the Indies all alone, but that he had preferred the more lucrative profession of pirate to the dangerous calling of the pioneer. Since, however, all his privateering had been done at the expense of the Spaniards, nobody minded these few alleged irregularities of his youthful days. And the merchants who drank their pot of ale at his inn willingly provided him with the money which he needed, bade him go ahead, and helped him when during the winter of the year 1597 he was getting his two ships ready for the voyage.

Now, it happened that at that time a number of merchants in Amsterdam were working for the same purpose. They, too, wanted to sail to the Moluccas by way of the Strait of Magellan. For the sake of greater safety the two companies decided to travel together. In June of the year 1597 their fleet, composed of four ships, was ready for the voyage. Van Noort was to command the biggest vessel, the Mauritius, while the commander of the Amsterdam company was to be vice-admiral of the fleet on board the Henrick Frederick.

The name of the vice-admiral was Jacob Claesz. We know nothing about his early career, but we know all the details of his tragic end. There were two other small ships. There was a yacht called the Eendracht, and there was a merchantman called the Hope. The tonnage of the ships is not mentioned, but since there were only 248 men on the four ships, they must have been small even for that time. In a general way our meager information about the invested capital, the strange stories of the early lives of the commanders, and the very rough character of the crew show that we have to do with one of the many mushroom companies, an enterprise which was not based upon very sound principles, but was of a purely speculative nature.

During the earliest days of Indian trading, however, all good merchants were in such a hurry to make money to get to Java long before anybody else and to reach home ahead of all competitors that there was no time for the promoting of absolutely sound companies. On the other hand, the men who commanded those first expeditions had all been schooled in the noble art of self-reliance during the first twenty terrible years of the war against Spain. They were brave, they were resourceful, they succeeded where others, more careful, would have failed.

On the 28th of June of the year 1597 Van Noort left Rotterdam to await his companions from Amsterdam in the Downs, England. He waited for several weeks, but the ships did not appear, so he went back to Holland to find out what might have become of them. He found them lying at anchor in one of the Zeeland streams. Evidently there had been a misunderstanding as to the exact meeting-place of the two squadrons. Together they then began the voyage for a second time. They had lost a month and a half in waiting for each other, but at that date forty-five days more or less did not matter. The trip was to take a couple of years, anyway. First of all Van Noort went to Plymouth, where he had arranged to meet a British sailor, commonly referred to as “Captain Melis,” a man who had been around the world with Captain Cavendish in 1588, and who was familiar with the stormy regions around the southern part of the American continent. In exchange for one Englishman, Van Noort lost several good Dutchmen. Six of his sailors deserted, and could not be found again.

The first part of the trip was along the coast of Africa, a road which we know from other expeditions. Then came a story with which we are only too familiar from previous accounts, for the much dreaded scurvy appeared among the men. When the fleet passed the small island of Principe in the Gulf of Guinea, it was decided to land there and try to obtain fresh water and fresh food. Unfortunately, this island was within the established domain of the Portuguese, and the Hollanders must be careful.

Early in the morning of the day on which they intended to look for water they sent three boats ashore flying a white flag as a sign of their peaceful intentions. The inhabitants of the island came near the boats, also carrying a white flag. They informed the Hollanders that if they would kindly visit the near-by villages the natives would sell them everything they wanted, provided the Hollanders paid cash. The men were ordered to stay near the boats, but four officers went farther inland. They were asked to come first of all to the Portuguese castle that was on the island. They went, but once inside, they were suddenly attacked, and three of them were murdered. The fourth one jumped out of the gate just in time to save his life. He ran to the shore. This was a great loss to the Hollanders, for among the men who had been killed was a brother of Admiral van Noort and the English pilot upon whom they depended to guide them through the difficult Strait of Magellan.

To uphold the prestige of the Dutch Republic, Van Noort decided to make an example. The next day after he landed with 120 of his men and entrenched himself near the mouth of a river, so that he might fill his water-tanks at leisure. Then, following this river, he went into the interior of the country and burned down all the plantations and houses he could find. Well provided with fresh water, he thereupon crossed the Atlantic Ocean and steered for the coast of Brazil.

On the 9th of February he dropped anchor in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, which was a Portuguese town. He carefully kept out of reach of the menacing guns of the fortification. The reception in Brazil was little more cordial than it had been on the other side of the ocean. The Portuguese sent a boat to the Dutch ships to ask what they wanted. The answer was that the Hollanders were peaceful travelers in need of fresh provisions. The provisions were promised for the next day, but Van Noort, who had heard similar promises before, was on his guard and for safety’s sake he kept a few Portuguese sailors on his ship as hostages.

On the morning of the next day he sent several of his men to the shore to get the supplies. They landed near a mountain called the Sugarloaf. Once more the Portuguese did not play the game fairly. They had posted a number of their soldiers in a well-hidden ambush near the Sugar-loaf. These soldiers suddenly opened fire, wounded a large number of the Dutch seamen and took two of them prisoners. A little later a shot fired from one of the cannon of the castle killed a man on board the Eendracht. The two Dutch prisoners were safely returned the next day in exchange for the Portuguese hostages, but Van Noort was obliged to leave the town without getting his provisions.

Therefore a few days later he landed on a small island near the coast where he found water and fruit, and his men caught fish and wild birds and were happy. Again the Portuguese interfered. They had ordered a number of Indians to follow the Dutch fleet and do whatever damage they could. When a Dutch boat with six men came rowing to the shore it was suddenly attacked by a large number of Indians in canoes. Two of the six men were killed. The other four were taken prisoner and were never seen again. Of course adventures of this sort were not very encouraging. Some of the officers suggested that, after all, it might be a better idea to discontinue the voyage around the South American coast before it was too late. They proposed that the ships should cross the Atlantic once more, and should either go to St. Helena and wait there until the next spring or should sail to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope; for it was now the month of March, and in that part of the world our summer is winter and our winter is summer. Wherefore they greatly feared that the ships could not reach the Strait of Magellan before the winter storms of July should set in.

It was upon such occasions that Van Noort showed his courage and his resolute spirit. His expedition was in bad shape. One of the ships, the Eendracht, was leaking badly. Through the bad water, the hard work, and the insufficient food a large number of sailors had fallen ill, and every day some of them died. Wherever the expedition tried to land on the coast of Brazil to get water and supplies they found strong Portuguese detachments which drove them away. Not for a moment, however, did Van Noort dream of giving up his original plans. At last, after many weeks and by mere chance, he found a little island called St. Clara where there were no Portuguese and no unfriendly natives and where he could build a fort on shore to land the sick men and cure them of their scurvy with fresh herbs. The expedition remained on Santa Clara for three weeks.

1645 Spaniards sack Brunei.

1691 Roman Catholic Mission in Brunei.

1762 Sir William Draper releases Sultan Mumin from prison in Manila and restores him.

1775 Hon’ble East India Co. established in Brunei.

1796 Rajah Api seizes the Brunei throne.

4.1803 James Brooke born.___James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was the first White Rajah of Sarawak. His father, Thomas Brooke, was English; his mother, Anna Maria, was born in Hertfordshire, the illegitimate daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre, and his mistress Harriott Teasdale. James Brooke was born in Secrore, a suburb of Banares, India. ames stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England and a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away. Some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Assam during the First Anglo-Burmese War until seriously wounded in 1825, and sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, and resigned. He remained in the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, and returned home via China.

1819 Raffles founds Singapore.___Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore (now the city-state of the Republic of Singapore). He is often described as the “Father of Singapore”. He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book entitled History of Java (1817). ………………………………Meanwhile, Major William Farquhar, the British Resident of Malacca, had been attempting to negotiate commercial treaties with the local chiefs of the Riau Archipelago, especially with the heads of the Sultanate of Johore. Due to the death and subsequent turmoil of the sultanate at the time of Farquhar’s arrival, Farquhar was compelled to sign the treaty not with the official head of the sultanate, but rather, the Raja Muda (Regent or Crown Prince) of Riau. Noting it as a success and reporting it as such back to Raffles, Raffles sailed to Malacca in late 1818 to personally secure a British presence in the Riau area, especially Singapura, which was favoured by him both through the readings of Malayan histories and by Farquhar’s explorations.

Despite Lord Hastings’ less-than-stellar opinion of Raffles before (which had necessitated his trip to England to clear his name at the end of his tenure as Governor-General of Java), the now well-connected and successful Raffles was able to secure the permission to set up a settlement where in Malaysian history the name Lion City was applied and was in a strategically advantageous position. However, he was not to provoke the Dutch, and his actions were officially disavowed. Despite the best efforts in London by authorities such as the Viscount Castlereagh to quell Dutch fears and the continuing efforts to reach an agreement between the nations that eventually became the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of London of 1824, as well as to send instructions to Raffles to undertake far less intrusive actions, the distance between the Far East and Europe had meant that the orders had no chance of reaching Raffles in time for his venture to begin.

1828 Rajah Api murdered and succeeded by Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin 11.

3. 6.1829 Charles Brooke born.___Charles, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke; 3 June 1829 – 17 May 1917), born Charles Anthony Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke,[1] as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo.__Biography: Charles was born in Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Somerset, in England, to the Rev. Francis Charles and Emma Frances Johnson, the younger sister of Rajah Sir James Brooke. Francis and Emma had other children: Captain John Brooke Johnson (1823–1868) (later Brooke Brooke), Mary Anna Johnson (b. 1824), Harriet Helena Johnson (b. 1826), Charlotte Frances Johnson (b. 1828), Captain (William) Frederic Johnson (b. 1830), Emma Lucy Johnson (b. 1832), Margaret Henrietta Johnson (1834–1845), Georgianna Brooke Johnson (1836–1854), James Stuart Johnson (1839–1840), and Henry Stuart Johnson (b. 1841).

Charles was educated at Crewkerne Grammar School and entered the Royal Navy. He adopted his uncle James’s name and entered his service in 1852 as Resident at the Lundu station. In 1865, James named Charles as his successor.

Charles married Margaret Alice Lili de Windt at Highworth, Wiltshire on 28 October 1869; she was raised to the title of Ranee of Sarawak with the style of Her Highness 28 October 1869. They had six children, three of whom survived infancy:

  • Dayang Ghita Brooke (1870–1873)
  • James Harry Brooke (1872–1873)
  • Charles Clayton Brooke (1872–1873)
  • Vyner of Sarawak (1874–1963)
  • Bertram, Tuan Muda (1876–1965)
  • Harry Keppel Brooke, Tuan Bongsu (1879–1926) [1]
  • Evidence also exists (see Reece cited in references below) that Charles Brooke had another son, Esca Brooke, born of a liaison with a native Malay woman which was unrecognized in English law. Esca was later adopted by Rev. William Daykin and moved to Canada.

Charles continued the work his uncle had started, suppressing piracy, slavery, and head-hunting, while encouraging trade and development and expanding his borders as the opportunity arose. In 1891 he established the Sarawak Museum, the first museum in Borneo. Brooke founded a boys’ school in 1903, called the ‘Government Lay School’, where Malays could be taught in the Malay language. This was the forerunner of SMK Green Road. By the time of his death, Britain had granted Sarawak protectorate status, it had a parliamentary government and a railway, and oil had been discovered.

All three White Rajahs are buried in St Leonard’s Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor.

1837 Sarawak insurrection against Brunei.

1838 Sarawak insurgents appeal to Batavia for help.

5. 8.1839 James Brooke visits Sarawak.___In 1841, James Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this time he agreed to assist Pangeran Muda Hashim. The success in defeating the pirates and insurgents led to the signing of a treaty in 1841 ceding as a reward Sarawak and Sinian to James Brooke. Thereafter, on 24 September 1841, Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Rajah to James Brooke. He effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak, later extending his administration through an agreement with the Sultan of Brunei. The uniqueness of this arrangement in becoming a Rajah without any intent of colonizing or imperialism mesmerized the British public’s imagination and gave further impetus to exploration and rise to “man who would be king” adventurers in exotic locales.

James Brooke, who was to become the first White Rajah, received a sizable tract of land from the Sultan. As time went on Sarawak’s size would increase tremendously as more territory was leased or acquired from the Sultan of Brunei.

9. 8.1840 James Brooke returns to Sarawak.

20.12.1840 Lidah Tanah captured.

4. 9.1840 Rajah Muda Hassim hands over the Government of Sarawak to James Brooke.

10. 1.1842 First code of laws published by James Brooke.

1. 8.1842 James Brooke proclaimed Rajah of Sarawak at Brunei.

18. 9.1842 Installation of James Brooke as Rajah in Kuching.

12. 6.1843 Taking of Paku.___When James Brooke was installed Rajah of Sarawak by Raja Muda Hashim and Pengiran Makota in 1841, the Dayaks of the Saribas and Skrang combined their forces and attacked settlements as far north as Bintulu and to the southeast as far as Pontianak. Due to the trouble caused by these attacks, the Rajah, with the help of a British Royal Navy contingent under Captain Henry Keppel, attacked the Saribas in June 1843, at first taking Padeh, then Paku and finally Rimbas.

For the same reason an expedition made up of the joint services of James Brooke and the Royal Navy under Captain Henry Keppel attacked the Batang Lupar Iban of the Undup and Skrang rivers. In 1844, in the Undup a large number of raiders were killed, including Lieutenant Ward, while in the Skrang a Malay Chief, Datu Patinggi Ali, and Mr. Steward suffered the same fate at Kerangan Peris.

In January 1845, Linggir of Paku led a party of Saribas chiefs for formal sub¬mission to the Rajah at Kuching in accordance with the promise they had made at Padeh, Paku and Rimbas in 1843. The Skrangs were represented by chief Linggi.

15. 6.1843 Taking of Rimbas.

On 4th.June, 1843 Raja James Brooke and Captain Henry Keppel organized a war expedition to attack the Dayak Iban of Saribas area. Datu Patinggi Ali who join the White Rajah in this war expedition had been sent ahead of the main tracker callled “Bala”. At the mouth of Batang Saribas he met with the seven Dayak Iban war boat called “Bangkong or Perahu Pengayau” whom Datu Patinggi Ali attacked and drove back to the up river after he succeed capturing one.

The strongest and most important Dayak Iban longhouse belonging to Orang Kaya Pemancha Dana Bayang at Nanga Padeh was about sixty miles up the Batang Saribas River and defended only by the two forts and a barrier of trees called “Pengerebah” that will block the river from being entered easily by their enemies. The longhouse was completely burnt and taken by James Brooke on the 11th.June,1843.

Three days later on the 14th.June,1843 the war expedition group of James Brooke went up to Sungai Paku, the branch of the Saribas River and attacked Linggir Mali Lebu fort at Karangan Pinggai. The Dayak Ibans did not show any resistance, but Rajah James Brooke burnt down a few longhouses along the Sungai Paku River bank.

Another three days later on the 17th.June,1843 Rajah James Brooke and his war forces went up the Sungai Rimbas another branch of the Saribas River, and attacked the fort belonging to the Dayak Iban leader by the name Rekaya Antau Linggang Nengeri and Rekaya Gun Mangku Bumi at Sungai Tawai. This was the largest and the strongest Dayak Iban fort along the Saribas River. They fought bravely but were over powered by the Armed Rajah Forces. The Rimbas chiefs then submitted. That was the first time the Dayak Ibans of Saribas River had ever fought against the White Man (Orang Putih), but not their brothers in the Skrang areas.

It was probably on 19th.August,1844 at Karangan Peris in the Skrang area that Libau Rentap was first fought against the White Rajah armed forces. He stood bravely blocking the advance trackers of Datu Patinggi Ali’s forces with a formidable array of war boats and thousands of men on each bank of the river. They had selected a good positions where they could effectively use their spears and blowpipes.

Although the old Datu Patinggi Ali and his small contingent fearlessly fought against Rentap and his men they were out numbered and Datu Patinggi Ali was killed along together with George Steward and twenty nine of his devoted followers with fifty six of them wounded. The main party of the White Rajah armed forces were not in time to support him.Datu Patinggi Ali and his devoted followers were buried in the Batang Undup area.

5. 7.1843 Visit of H.M.S. Semarang to Sarawak.___The period of Brunei in the mid-19th century was probably among the most well written compared to any other earlier centuries before that. There were other writing especially by the Chinese, the Spanish and the Portuguese. However, it was the British that dominated the time period of the 1800s.

Captain Henry Keppel who commandeered HMS Meander and later HMS Dido published three volumes. The first volume was entitled “The Expedition to Borneo on HMS Dido for The Suprression of Piracy with Extracts from The Journal of James Brooke”. This book was published in New York by Harper & Brothers Publishers in 1846.

Captain Henry Keppel later wrote two other volumes which were entitled “A Visit to the Indian Archipelago in HM Ship Meanader with Portions of the Private Journal of Sir James Brooke” Volumes One and Two. They were originally published in London by Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street in 1853.

While many other books deal with James Brooke but one of the most interesting one is written by himself in the form of a letter entitled “A Letter from Borneo with Notices of the Country and Its Inhabitants” addressed to James Gardner. This letter was published as a small book by L and G Seeley, Fleet Street, London in 1842.

James Brooke wrote the letter in December 1941 from Kuching, Sarawak. He described his thoughts about Brunei which he termed as Borneo Proper and what he wanted to do with both Sarawak and Brunei.

Without the captains of the British Royal Navy namely that of HMS Iris, HMS Dido and HMS Semarang together with HMS Spiteful, HMS Agincourt, HMS Ringdove, HMS Hazard and HMS Royalist, James Brooke would not have been able to expand his influence and there is a possibility that Sarawak may not have been as big as it is today.

Under the guise of fighting pirates, James Brooke was able to bring the might of the British Royal Navy then to fight against any that oppose him. We do not know for sure how many of those whom the British guns aimed at, were actually pirates or enemies of James Brooke.

There were four major expeditions led by the Brooke together with the British Navy against “sheriffs” or the officers appointed by the Sultan of Brunei. Surprisingly the first of the four expeditions against Sahap of Sadong, Mullah of Undop and Ahmad of Linggi in June 1843.

HMS Dido commanded by Captain Henry Keppel published his accounts on the attacks at Saribas in his book “The Expedition to Borneo in HMS Dido” published in 1846.

The attacks against “pirates” must be seen in the context of Rajah Brooke trying to gain control over Sarawak. His emergence in Sarawak caused great consternation to many. James Brooke attracted by the richness of the area was offered the governorship of Sarawak in replacement of Pengiran Indera Mahkota by Pengiran Muda Hashim, the son of Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam. Pengiran Muda Hashim had a long standing resentment against Pengiran Indera Mahkota.

Pengiran Indera Mahkota had given his active support to the Sheriffs of Saribas, Patusan and Sekrang and their opposition to Brooke. So the attacks by Brooke and the British Navy on them cannot be viewed in terms of piracy! Captain Mundy of HMS Iris certainly took part. On July 6, HMS Iris together with HMS Spiteful towing HMS Agincourt, HMS Ringdove, HMS Hazard and HMS Royalist into the river about 12 miles below the town of Brunei (spelt as Brune in the book). On July 8 when they proceeded up the river, the Bruneians opened fire and Captain Mundy of HMS Iris landed and stormed the fort. Sultan Omar Ali Saiffuddin had to flee to Damuan. The British stole many guns and cannons. One of these was said to be described as a magnificent Spanish piece of the reign of Charles III.

Subsequently Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II was forced to sign a treaty to end the British occupation of Brunei Town. In that treaty, James Brooke was recognised as the Rajah of Sarawak and given the right to rule Sarawak without interference including naming his own successor.

Due to British pressure, Sultan Omar ‘Ali Saifuddin II also ceded Labuan to the British under the Treaty of Labuan signed on December 18, 1846. James Brooke was subsequently knighted and appointed as the first British Governor of Labuan in 1847. The loss of Labuan was a big blow to Brunei as it was its gateway to the outside world.

Captain Keppel clearly admired James Brooke. He wrote in the book HMS Dido of his admiration of him “that if any man ever possessed in himself the resources and means by which such noble designs were to be achieved, that man was James Brooke! Of the most enlarged views: truthful and generous; quick to acquire and appreciate; excelling in every manly sport and exercise; elegant and accomplished”. Captain Keppel eventually rose to become Admiral of the Fleet.

Sir Henry Keppel, GCB, OM, was the son of the 4th Earl of Albemarle and of his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Lord de Clifford. He entered the navy from the old naval academy of Portsmouth in 1822. His family connections secured him rapid promotion, at a time when the rise of less fortunate officers was very slow. He became lieutenant in 1829 and commander in 1833. His first command was largely passed on the coast of Spain, which was then in the midst of the convulsions of the Carlist War. Captain Keppel had already made himself known as a good seaman. He was engaged with the squadron stationed on the west coast of Africa to suppress the slave trade.

In 1837 he was promoted post captain, and appointed in 1841 to the service in China and against the Malay pirates, a service which he repeated in 1847, when in command of HMS Maeander.

The story of his two commands became the substance of his autobiography, which was published in 1899 under the title “A Sailors Life under four Sovereigns”. After doing his duties in the Far East, he was active in the Crimean War. He became an admiral in 1877 and retired in 1879.  History would have been written differently had these captains not offered their ships to help James Brooke.

25. 7.1843 Sir Henry Keppel arrives with H.M.S. Dido and H.E.I.C.S. Phlegethon.___HMS Dido was the name ship of her class of light cruisers for the Royal Navy. She was built by Cammell Laird Shipyard (Birkenhead, UK), with the keel being laid down on 26 October 1937. She was launched on 18 July 1939 and commissioned on 30 September 1940.After working up was completed early November 1940, Dido became a member of the 15th cruiser squadron deployed in blockading the approaches to the Bay of Biscay. This duty was designed to prevent raids by the German pocket battleshipAdmiral Scheer. In March 1941, she provided cover for the successful commando raid on the Lofoten Islands (Operation Claymore).


The Rejang (Rajang) River was a key source of wealth in Sarawak in the 1840s with products like rice, beeswax, jungle products, fine clothes and dried fish. The trade was controlled by the affluent Malays at Sarikei and the ruler was Datuk Patinggi Abdul Rahman (the most powerful man along the coast). His mother was a Kayan from upriver and he had the support of the Kayan chiefs. His Siriki village at Sarikei River could be considered the cradle of Sarikei civilisation.

Rajah James Brooke wanted to use the Rejang River to fight against the Ibans of Skrang and Saribas who had migrated to Kanowit and other lower Rejang tributaries. On 30th April 1845 James Brooke visited Saikei in his steamer H.E.I.C.S. Phlegethon.  By 1845, Abdul Rahman could not contain the Ibans. James Brooke sailed to Sarikei in 1846 in his British steamer, Phlegethon, and wanted Abdul Rahman to control the Dyaks of Kanowit so that they didn’t make boats for the Ibans’ raiding expeditions down the Rejang River.

Sarikei was part of the Brunei Sultanate until Sarikei became part of the Sarawak Territory after Sultan Abdul Mumin of Brunei ceded the Lower Rejang (Rajang) Basin to James Brooke in 1853.

20. 1.1844 Great fire in Kuching.

8. 8.1844 Sherip Sahap attacked and Patusan taken.

29. 8.1844 Pengiran Mahkota captured at Lingga.

1. 2.1845 James Brooke appointed H.M. confidential agent in Borneo.

30. 4.1845 James Brooke visits Sarikei in H.E.I.C.S. Phlegethon.

31.12.1845 Murder of Rajah Muda Hassim and Pengiran Badruddin in Brunei. ___Pengiran Muda Hashim or Raja Muda Hashim was sent to Sarawak in 1835 to pacify the country. Trouble was brewing as an anti-Brunei force led by Datu Patinggi Ali went up against Pengiran Indera Mahkota, Sarawak’s governor at that time. Jalan Badruddin, Kuching – Pengiran Badruddin was Raja Muda Hashim’s half brother. Badruddin was said to be a man of his word and full of integrity. James Brooke took a liking to him the instant they met and they became good friends. Brooke had even given Badruddin his signet ring to wear and told Badruddin that should he ever be in danger, to send the ring as a sign of trouble and he will come to Badruddin’s rescue. The two had fought the rebellion together side by side bravely. Soon after Brooke became Rajah, Badruddin was recalled to Brunei. The Sultan was not happy with him being Brooke’s loyal supporter. A plan to murder him and his whole family was made. On the night of April 5, 1846, Badruddin’s house was surrounded and attacked. Luckily, Badruddin managed to get one of his help Japar to send the ring to Brooke but Badruddin and his family all died that night. Japar managed to escape but instead of running away, he fired a keg of gunpowder and blew all of them sky high.

8. 7.1846 James Brooke captures Brunei.

16. 8.1846 Membakut taken.

22. 8.1846 Sultan Omar Ali submits to James Brooke.

23. 8.1846 Territory between the Sadong and Oya Rivers ceded to James Brooke.

1847 Population of Kuching reported to be 8,000.

16. 3.1847 James Brooke appointed H.M. Commissioner and Consul General forBorneo.

1848 Establishment of S.P.G. Mission school in Kuching.

21. 9.1848 Sarawak flag first hoisted.

22. 5.1848 James Brooke received by Queen Victoria and knighted K.C.B.

27.11.1848 Sir James Brooke appointed Governor of Labuan and its ependencies. I

31. 7.1849 Battle of Beting Maru.___In 1849 Linggir and his Saribas warriors raided Igan, Paloh and Matu. On the way home, they decided to attack Sarikei, fifty miles inside the Rajang River. Upon arrival they found that Sarikei was strongly defended, for the refugees who had fled from Igan, Paloh and Matu had sounded the alarm. Consequently the party turned back and attacked Duri near the mouth of the Rejang River. Duri had only a short time before been raided by the Layar Dayaks under OKP Dana “Bayang” of the Padeh and Datu Patinggi Udin of Rantau Anak on the middle Layar.

When Linggir and his warriors reached the mouth of the Kalaka, they saw a huge steamer moored there. They paddled hard towards the mouth of the Saribas River. When they came to the sand bar of Beting Maru, they were met by another steamer with guns and canons. Sensing danger, Linggir ordered all his men to land at the sand bar and make an attempt to escape to the Undai stream whilst his boat and Laksamana Amir’s boat will be used to attack the steamer to avert its attention. Unfortunately, most of the Skrang followers boat choosed to escape across the Saribas River mouth onto the Batang Lupar River. While attempt to do this, they suffer most casualties in the hand of Brooke’s men. Those who managed to escape to the Skrang were the Apai Dendang’s men, Linggir’s staunch allies from lower Skrang. As for Linggir’s men who managed to land at Cape Maru, they left their boat on the sand bar and escaped under cover of darkness by land to the Undai Stream, a tributary of the Rimbas above Pusa settlement. That is why there is no casualty for those who escaped on land, as the Brooke’s men would not dare to risk chasing after the stragglers in the dark. Their boats were later either destroyed or being used by the Brooke’s men in pursuit of Linggir and Abang Apong to their hideout inside Paku River.

With great courage, Linggir and Abang Apong’s warboats attacked the schooner. While attacking the Schooner, Linggir’s brother-in-law named Chabu or Saribas Jack slipped and fell to the sea. Linggir’s men made a brave attempt to climb onboard the schooner, but it was defended very well by its crew. After sometime, Linggir ordered their men to abort the attack and escape up the Saribas River. Out of 17 boats only two managed to escape up the Saribas that night under the guidance of Linggir and Abang Apong. When they had escaped all danger, Linggir’s men beat a gong so that their friends who escaped onland in the darkness that night would know the direction to the Saribas River.

Early next morning a man was seen floating on a nipah palm log which was drifting towards shore with the tide. Seeing him, the Malay crewmen in one of the ships caught him and brought him before the Rajah. On his arrival on board the Rajah’s ship, some of the Malays asked the Rajah if they might kill him. Hearing this, the captive struggled, struck one of his captors on the chest and severely wounded him. The Rajah ordered that the man be detained on board, despite his demand for instant release. The Rajah would not let him go, as a messenger, for he knew that if other Iban met him alone they would kill him. He was kept on board the ship until the return of the expedition to Sarawak (Kuching). When the crewmen asked him his name, he refused to tell them. So the sailors nicknamed him “Saribas Jack”.

Next day, the combined forces under the Rajah and Captain Henry Keppel went on the tide up the Saribas River. At the vacated Malay village of Buling, near the mouth of the Paku River, the forces stopped for the night. All the Malays of this settlement had already fled upriver to live with the Iban at Kerangan Pinggai in the Paku.

Early next morning, on the tide, the forces used the light Saribas warboats they had captured at Beting Maru to go up the Paku River. Just below an Iban settlement called Matop, they encountered several huge impassible tree trunks lying across the river. These ensurai trees had been felled by Linggir’s warriors to hinder their advance. It took a long time for the Rajah’s men to cut through these barriers so that their boats could reach their destination at Nanga Peka that evening.

Hearing that the Rajah’s forces had landed at Nanga Peka, about half a mile below his settlement, Linggir gathered eighteen warriors to prepare for the ambush the next day. He was unable to summon additional fighters to join them in an attack on the Rajah’s advancing flotilla, as his other warriors had not yet managed to find their way home through the forest into which they fled following the Beting Maru battle.

Late in the evening, after the enemy had landed at Nanga Peka, Linggir sent Enchana “Letan” and his young nephew, a warrior named Gerijih, to spy on them. These warriors went as ordered, though they were nervous. When they had hidden themselves in the bushes close to where the enemy had assembled their boats, they heard the Rajah presiding over a council of war. He was heard to command Janting of Lingga and his Balau warriors to lead the Rajah’s bala to attack the Saribas next morning. In reply, Janting said that he and his fighting men would not dare to risk this, since, as he put it, “we are in fear of the two powerful leading enemies colored like the biring sempidan fighting cocks, who will arrogantly scratch the earth on the battle¬ground tomorrow.” This meant that Janting and his people, spiritually seen as fighting cocks, would not be able to defeat two of the leading enemies in the next day’s battle.

After the Balau chief had made this reply, the spies heard Jugah, chief of the Lundu Sebuyaus, telling his leader that he would command his three sons Kalong, Bunsi and Tujang to take the lead.

“We Sebuyaus”, he said, “once born, never return to our mother’s wombs.” By this he meant that, as human beings, we die only once.

After Jugah had assured the Rajah that his warrior sons would lead the attack, Abang Hassan of Kuching was heard prophesying that in accordance with the information from his katika, or ilmu palat (system of divination), these leading warriors must wear yellow headgear, in order to be successful in leading the attack. He also warned that the battle would be won by the warriors who first shouted victory; the warrior who first killed his foe would win the battle. After this, “Letan” and Gerijih hastened back to inform Linggir and the other warriors of what they had seen and heard while spying.

That night Linggir called a council of war. In it he asked the Laksamana Amir to determine their fate in the coming battle. The latter read his katika and said that Linggir, his son Abang Apong, and Abang Gambong his nephew should be the warriors to lead in battle. “You three”, he said, “must wear yellow head-bands, and as you go to fight the enemy, you must first shout the war cry. Then you will defeat them.”

Early next morning Linggir, Abang Apong and Abang Gambong led their warriors to set an ambush at the foot of a low hill overlooking Nanga Peka. While they were waiting for the enemy to advance, they directed three young men, Saang, Muking and Mula, to shake the top of a jackfrait tree on the hill top to draw the enemy’s attention.

When the enemy saw the boys playing and shaking the tree branches, Bunsi and his brothers Tujang and Kalong ran forward to attack them. But when Bunsi passed one of Linggir’s warriors named Kedit “Rindang” who had hidden himself inside a cluster of young bamboo, Kedit instantly struck him with a pedang sword on his neck and killed him on the spot. Seeing this Tujang rushed forward to assist his brother. But when he suddenly met Abang Apong, they both caught each other by the hands and started to wrestle. They did not pause to take up swords because they were both startled at meeting each other.

When he wrestled against Tujang, Abang Apong pushed Tujang to Linggir to help him. And as Linggir came forward Abang Apong pushed Tujang away so that he was struck by Linggir with his nyabor sword on the side of his head, slashing his ear. As Linggir was about to strike him again, Tujang threw himself into the Peka stream where he died. But when Linggir was about to cut off his head the enemy fired a volley of shots at them. One of the bullets wounded Abang Gambong severely on the arm. At this Linggir and Abang Apong left Tujang alone in order to rescue Abang Gambong.

After this lightning swift fight was over, Linggir and his men took away Abang Gambong up the Paku River. He died while they were carrying him by boat up the Anyut stream, and he was buried at Lubok Engkala near Engkarebai.

From Nanga Peka the Rajah’s forces went further up and burnt Majang’s house at Nanga Anyut, so that its inhabitants went to join the people of other houses after the war was over.

After the battle of Paku, the Rajah’s force returned to Buling on their way back to Kuching. There, Jugah’s son-in-law was accidentally killed by the force’s own gun which went off in the boat. His death shocked Jugah who begged for leave from the Rajah in order to return to bury in the Lundu cemetery his three sons killed in one day.

After the departure of the Lundu chief, the Rajah and his followers returned to their ships at Buiing. As they did so a gunner was accidentally killed by another gun-shot. He was buried in the Malay cemetery at Telok Semang near Seruai. About an hour after the burial, his head was cut off and taken away by Ujan “Batu” of Luban of the lower Paku. Some weeks after the return of the expedition the Rajah met Saribas Jack. The latter demanded to be speedily released. He told the Rajah that his five small children must be suffering much during his absence, as there was no one to look after them, after the recent death of their mother. These words moved the Rajah, so he ordered that Saribas Jack was to be escorted to Kabong with a letter to Abang Ali, charging him to send him safely home.

From Kabong, Abang Ali’s men sent him up the Krian River and let him go by himself from the upper Krian to the Paku watershed. At the source of the Paku, as he walked along the path near the Tampak Panas settlement, he was seen by his sister Angkis who was drawing drinking water from the river. But as all the Paku people were certain that he had died during the Beting Maru battle, she was so astonished that she returned to the house without speaking a word to him. On her arrival, Angkis told her friends that she had seen his brother. But no one believed her, as all were certain that her brother had been killed in the sea fight at Beting Maru.

At this time the people of Linggir’s house at Kerangan Pinggai on the middle river were preparing for the ngerapoh ceremony in which they would bury Chabu’s personal belongings in the cemetery according to custom. Chabu was the true name of “Saribas Jack”. When he came near his own house, his young sons who were collecting firewood for the ngerapoh ceremony saw him walking in the distance towards the house. They ran home and told the people that they had seen their father coming to the house. The old people said that it could not be their father, but all of a sudden he came in and was welcomed by young and old with tears of joy.

About three weeks later Linggir and other leaders from the Paku went to renew their submission to the Rajah at Kuching. On this occasion Saribas Jack found a way to meet the Rajah. He told the ruler that he wished to be forgiven. He admitted that in the past he had joined his people’s expeditions either by land or by sea, but now he promised not to take part in such raids in the future. Finally, he told the Rajah that he was a chief, a rich man, and that his name was Chabu, the brother-in-law of chief Linggir.

In 1850 after the battle of Beting Maru, a fort was built at the junction of the Skrang and the Batang Lupar Rivers to prevent the warriors under Libau “Rentap” from collaborating with those under Linggir and Aji in raiding the peaceful people living along the coast. The establishment of Fort James at Skrang was strongly opposed by Libau “Rentap” and the upper Skrang chiefs. As a matter of fact, Libau “Rentap” and his warriors attacked it in 1850, when Allan Lee was killed by Libau “Rentap” son-in-law named Layang, at Lintang Batang a few miles up the Skrang River.

In 1854 an innocent headmen named Apai Dendang “Gasing Gila” was attacked by the Tuan Besar and his brother the Tuan Muda, James Brooke-Brooke and Charles Brooke, near Tekalong in the Skrang River. Apai Dendang’s house was strongly defended by the bravest Skrang warriors, re-enforced by Aji and Linggir “Mali Lebu” of the Saribas.

Because of their commitment to assist Apai Dendang, Linggir and Aji were summoned by James Brooke to Kuching, in order to settle the dispute regarding their involvement in Skrang affairs. During their audience with the Rajah, they were accused of reinforced Apai Dendang who had been found guilty by the Tuan Muda at Skrang of having supplied salt to the rebel Libau “Rentap” at Sungai Lang. Therefore the Rajah fined them eight valuable jars to be deposited with the government.

Linggir and Aji told the Rajah that they could not accept the fine levied on them for their involvement in Apai Dendang’s affairs. They assured him that Apai Dendang was innocent and was a peaceful man. Furthermore they accused the Rajah’s nephews, the Tuan Besar and Tuan Muda, of having made a grave mistake in attacking Apai Dendang’s longhouse at Tekalong. Because of this, they said that they would fine the Rajah’s nephews for leading an unlawful invasion. The dispute ended without result. But the two chiefs again assured the Rajah that they would not attack peaceful people in the future, either by land or by sea.

26. 4.1850 Rentap defeats and kills Lee at Nanga Skrang.___In 1850 after the battle of Beting Maru, a fort was built at the junction of the Skrang and the Batang Lupar Rivers to prevent the warriors under Libau “Rentap” from collaborating with those under Linggir and Aji in raiding the peaceful people living along the coast. The establishment of Fort James at Skrang was strongly opposed by Libau “Rentap” and the upper Skrang chiefs. As a matter of fact, Libau “Rentap” and his warriors attacked it in 1850, when Allan Lee was killed by Libau “Rentap” son-in-law named Layang, at Lintang Batang a few miles up the Skrang River.

12. 7.1850 Hume’s motion of censure on Sir James Brooke.

24.10.1850 Recognition of Sarawak by the U.S.A.

22. 1.1851 Consecration of St. Thomas’s Church, Kuching.

10. 7.1851 Hume moves for commission on Battle of Beting Mani.

21. 7.1852 Charles Brooke arrives in Sarawak. ___ Charles Johnson Brooke was born in Burnham, Summerset, England to the Rev. Francis Charles and Emma Frances Johnson, the younger sister of James Brooke. Educated in England, Charles served in the Royal Navy before entering into the service of his uncle and taking the name ‘Brooke’ in 1852. He was his uncles heir by 1865.As Rajah, Charles would continue his uncles policies regarding Sarawak. He would continue to rule in a way he felt respected native customs, he would continue to expand borders and trade, continue to fight piracy and suppress the practice of head hunting. By his death in 1917 at the age of 88, Sarawak was a relatively prosperous protectorate of the British Empire with a railway, a parliament, and a museum. Raja Charles was succeeded by his eldest son Charles Vyner Brooke who would ascend the Sarawak throne as Raja Vyner.

4.1854 Dandi Expedition.___One the Dayak Iban war leader named Dandi whose nickname was “Gasing Gila” which meant “A Mad Spinning Top” in the Iban language. Dandi “Gasing Gila’ was a loyal Dayak Iban war leader to the White Rajah . Rajah James Brooke was suspecting that Dandi “Gasing Gila “ was collaborating with the rebellious Dayak Iban war leader named Libau Rentap.

In April year 1854, William Brereton who defended the fort at Nanga Skrang was organising a war expedition against Dandi “Gasing Gila”. When Dandi “Gasing Gila” heard the news , he summoned all the bravest Dayak Iban war men in the Batang Saribas for the battle against William Brereton and his followers. The Dayak Iban war men that he summoned was including Aji “Apai Limpa”, Linggir “Mali Lebu” and many other principal war leaders of the neighbouring areas to help him in the war.

The White Rajah Tuan Muda (Young Prince), Charles Brooke also brought along his war men from Lingga and joined by another group of war men from Kuching and they all proceeded up the Batang Skrang River to fight for the battle against the Dayak Iban war leader Dandi “Gasing Gila.” Along the journey William Brereton war men was passing by some dangerous rapids when they reached a point called Tanjung Lipat, where they have no choice but to leave their war boats (Bangkong / Perahu Pengayau) behind.

After a one day long journey walking on foot from Tanjung Lipat toward the longhouse of Dandi “Gasing Gila”, then William Brereton ordered that all the Europeans and all the Sarawak Malays war men should remain behind, while all the Dayaks Iban war men should be sent forward under their chief to do the attack in the battle against Dandi “Gasing Gila.

The longhouses of Dandi “Gasing Gila” was situated at the backbone of a hills some considerable distance away from where they are going to strike the attack. The Dayak Iban warriors at Dandi “Gasing Gila” longhouse were ready to defend themselves against the attack. At dawn on the third day, the advancing war men of Tuan Muda make a quick movement to reached Dandi’s “Gasing Gila” longhouses and make their battle attacked without any body giving an orders. As their leaders mounted the wooden ladder , they were struck off one after the other by hundreds of war men dressed in their fighting costumes headed by the whole of the Batang Saribas warriors.

The war leaders of Tuan Muda’s war men had to retire to guard those who were wounded and died , while the Dayak Iban warriors in the Dandi “Gasing Gila” longhouses yelled shoutly with cheered and beat their gongs happily as they win the war battle against the White Rajah Tuan Muda war men. The girls and women dressed in their best costumes were seen clapping their hands with loud shouted and encouraging their husband and sweethearts to take and chopped as many heads of the dead White Rajah Tuan Muda war men as many as possible.

As the longhouse of Dandi “Gasing Gila” was well defended by the bravest fighting men and warriors, the White Rajah Tuan Muda’s forces could not win the battle at all. They had to retreat to their base camp with many dead and wounded war men. The White Rajah Tuan Muda, Charles Brooke and William Brereton war expedition to destroy Dandi “Gasing Gila” and his war men was thus a total failure.

8.1854 Defeat of Rentap at Sungai Lang.___In 1854 the Rajah and his nephew led a punitive expedition against Libau “Rentap” at Sungai Lang in the Skrang. After some fighting, Libau “Rentap” was wounded and was carried away to the top of Sadok Mountain, situated between the headwaters of Penabun, Manjuau, Spak and the Layar Rivers of the Saribas and Skrang regions.  On the summit of the Sadok, Libau “Rentap” and his Skrang followers built a stockade which they defended till their final defeat in 1861.

Rentap’s fort (Kuta) at Bukit Sadok was regarded by the Dayak Ibans as impregnable. Since Libau Rentap was retreat from the lost of his last fort at Sungai Lang, he had strengthened his position at Bukit Sadok. In the Dayak Iban legends and songs the Dayak Iban community mentioned that the Bukit Sadok as a mountain so inaccesible and it was protected by the legendary characters of Panggau Libau, namely Keling and Bunga Nuing, Laja and Bunga Jawa, and many others, that no enemy would ever dare to attack it. Libau Rentap had gathered together all the Dayak Iban from all along the Skrang River who were faithful to him and those in the upper Saribas River who offered him aid so long as he occupied the top of Bukit Sadok which stood as an unapproachable centre far removed from danger, and to which they could all retire in case of need from the rule of the White Man.

Libau Rentap was given the tittle of “Raja Ulu” by all of the Dayak Iban warrior chief and Bukit Sadok was the centre of all opposition to the rule of the Rajah of Sarawak, James Brooke. Libau Rentap fort (Kuta) at Bukit Sadok was about 2,725 feet above the sea level and almost in accessible on every side because of the steep cliff. Libau Rentap was satisfied that his fort (Kuta) was very strong and could not be conquer by his enemies. The Dayak Iban was thus boasted to themselves that : “The White Man are powerful, having arms and ships at sea, but it is only we who are the Dayak Iban, who can walk and fight on land and clamber mountains.”

The word “Nundok” which meant surrender was the most word that Libau Rentap never said in his life. He swore that he would never meet the white men to talk about peace or anythings else. He and his men kept on strengthening his fort (kuta) in Sungai Lang. The word “Sungai” in Iban meant river and the word “Lang” meant a decomposed smell of an animal. Sungai Lang was located at the headwaters of the Skrang River with many of the Libau Rentap followers, comprising the Dayaks Iban and the Malays from the Lingga and Kuching area. They defended themselves strongly against the attack of the White Man.

In August, 1854 Rajah James Brooke proceeded up the Skrang River with a large group of war men , about 7,000 from the Dayaks and the Malays community.with the object of attacking Libau Rentap in his fort (kuta) at Sungai Lang. Libau Rentap and his war men were ready to defend the fort. at Sungai Lang. Libau RentapP and his followers was well prepared to defend the fort (Kuta) and the two Dayak Iban longhouses located on the ridge of a hill surrounded by steep ground. High stakes were driven into the earth forming a firm and thick stockade. The fort (Kuta) was situated at a place about four days’ journey on foot from Enteban in the Skrang where James Brooke established his base camp.

The Tuan Besar, Captain Brooke-Brooke was the one who placed in command of the war expedition against Rentap by land to Sungai Lang accompanied by his younger brother the Tuan Muda Charles Brooke, Mr. Crookshank, Mr. William Brereton and the other four English officers to assist him in the war. Due to his poor health Rajah James Brooke was unable to accompanied them in thw war expedition against Rentap to Sungai Lang but he was staying behind with a very strong forces to protect all their war long boat (Perahu Pengayau) and all the baggages at Enteban.

The war team of Tuan Besar Captain Brooke-Brooke proceeded up the Skrang River. After two days’ journey they reached Tebat, and they continued their journey untill the fourth days’ then they saw the Rentap’s fort (Kuta)standing on a hill cleared of all the thick old jungle. Their heavy armament consisted of four-pounder and three-pounder guns and rockets. When they were mounting the last rising ground on which Libau Rentap and his war men were fortified , they found that some of the Dayak Iban leaders had brave themselves foolishly by gaurding the fort (Kuta) advanced too close and a few of them had been killed and wounded.

The Tuan Besar Captain Brooke-Brooke war men then mounted the four-pounder gun and the rockets were fired on one end while the three-pounder gun were fired away at the other end of the Rentap’s fort (Kuta). And Rentap with his war men returned the fire with their small pretty brisky canon commonly called “Bedil” in Dayak Iban word. The Rentap war men also shouted out loudly in their war-cry against the White Rajah the words “Agi Bedarah Agi Ngelaban” which meant “Still Bleeding Still Fighting” , and also the words “Agi Idup Agi Ngelaban” which meant “Still Living Still Fighting” which was a commonly team spirit used by the Royal Malaysian Armed Forces untill now.

Early in that afternoon there was a commotion among the Rentap war men inside the fort (Kuta) . And the women together with their childrens were seen leaving the fort (Kuta) fron the opposite side of the hill where the the Tuan Besar Captain Brooke-Brooke striked the attacked. But Rentaptogether with all his braved and strong warriors were still stood fast and kept gaurding their posst all along the fort (Kuta).

The old Malays Chief named Panglima Seman , a Kalaka Malay of the White Rajah’s forces had not yet made any move to lead an attack against the Rentap. Some knew that he would act cautiously , but the others at him and his reply was “Your words are more than your deeds.” As the sun reached the horizon , Panglima Seman together with his war men moved up toward the Rentap fort (Kuta). They silently opened the stakes with their hands and jumped inside the Libau Rentap’s fort (Kuta) and shouted with a loud cheers and drew their swords during the attacked.

Then about fifty to sixty of the Rentap warriors were seen tearing away over the open ground covering their bodies with shields and fled towards Bukit Sadok. They were followed by the brave defenders of the fort (Kuta) who rolled down the side of the hill. Rentap was said to be wounded and had to be carried away by his war men who fled down the hill to a second and much more stronger Rentap fort (Kuta) located on the simmit os Bukit Sadok. Rentap fort (Kuta) located at Sungai Lang was been defeated and conquered by the White Rajah warriors. The White Rajah warriors spent a night at the Sungai Lang Rentap fort (Kuta). It was a mere victory for them, as Rentap was wounded but did not surrender himself to the White Rajah.

Bulan Apai Jelani and his war men watched and monitored the progress of the war expediton between Rentap and the White Rajah with interest, but they didn’t take any part with any side of them. They just wait and see, waiting for the attacking party to be in a stateof confusion. Nevertheless , there was no opportunity for him to attack them.

After the victory of conquering the Rentap fort (Kuta) at Sungai Lang, the Tuan Besar, Captain Brooke-Brooke who was in command of the war expedition was keen to follow Rentap to his second fort (Kuta) at Bukit Sadok, but his war men refused to go with them. Thus , the second attack did not take place. His warriors only satisfied with the single victory of conquering the Rentap for at Sungai Lang and was impatient to return home.

William Brereton unfortunately died of dysentery shortly after this war expedition (Kayau). In October, 1854 the Tuan Muda Charles Brooke was placed in charge of Batang Lupar district. Raja James Brooke’s advice to him was : “Encourage the good, Intimidate the bad and Confirm the wavering.

1852 Early Iban Pioneers of the Krian Region.

The early Iban pioneers who came to explore and settle the Krian region were originally from what is now the Saribas District. Many of them were at one time or another, Paku settlers. They pushed their routes to the Krian River via the Rimbas. Some of them took the lower route, starting from Sekundong or Kerangan Pinggai, Paku, transversed the Rimbas region of Debak, Deit, Belasau, Undai and Rapong to the Melupa where they continued their migration by boats sailing down the river. In Melupa these pioneers settled permanently, while some others pushed, on to the Awik, Sebetan and Sabelak region.

Other pioneers such as Radin took the middle route setting out from Samu, Paku. When they reached the Rimbas at Tembawai Surok Lelabi in the Teru, they wound their way up the river and then crossed to the Krian side at Bayor. On reaching Penajar Mountain the party split up. One party went downriver to explore the Kawang and Batang Rimbas until they came to Gerenjang, a tributary of the Upper Krian. Other parties explored the regions of Babang and Pilai. The pioneers of the Pilai followed the course of that river and finally settled at Nanga Maras, Krian.

Some explorers and pioneers started from Samu and Anyut migrating up the Paku River itself to the vicinity of Meroh where they turned to the left, going up the Ketoh River, a small tributary of the Paku until they reached its source, Mount Medang, the place where Linggir “Mali Lebu” encountered the spirit of Enting Naing in the form of a snake (ular kendawang). They ascended this mountain and settled on the other side of it, at the Upper Gerenjang. Others continued on to the Upper Krian and Awas.

(a) The Melupa Region.

After Daji’s victory over the Seru at Nanga Diso, where the Seru leader, Genalus, was killed by Nanggai of the Rimbas, more and more Iban came from the Saribas to occupy the Krian.

The region of the Melupa was perhaps first permanently settled by the immigrants led by Daji and Gila who used the lower route. They penetrated to the Melupa via the virgin jungle covering Sibirong Mountain, the source of Sulau River, a tributary of the Assam River, in the Melupa. Since their penetration was by way of the Sibirong, clearing the jungle to farm the land as they went, the mountain is also known as Sibirong Pesok. “Pesok” means to break through or penetration. In the course of their migration, they settled at the Sibirong for awhile. Later, Unggang “Kumpang Pali” led another party from the Saribas to the Krian via the Undai of the Rimbas and down the Melupa. He and his followers finally settled at Temudok on the middle Krian region.

(b) The Awik Region.1852

About three generations after the Iban had occupied the Krian River, Enchana “Letan Pulas Emas” and Penghulu Penghulu Minggat and their followers, decided to migrate from Paku region to the Krian region. At first they decided to settle in the Krian, but Gila, veteran of the last tribal war against the Sera at Nanga Diso, would not approve of this. Thus Letan and his party entered the Awik and built a longhouse at Rantau Menukol, located below Nanga Malong. From there they moved upriver at Lubok Kepayang.

Later when Penghulu Minggat came with his followers, he settled at Nanga Mitas, where he built a 60-door longhouse. The descendants of Penghulu Minggat now live in Kamidan, just above Nanga Mitas.

(c) The Sebetan Region.

Sebetan was pioneered almost simultaneously with Awik by Bir, one of Linggir “Mali Lebu” young warrior from Sekundong, Paku. He wanted to follow Penghulu Minggat and his party. But the latter dissuaded Bir from following him for fear that the Awik would soon become overcrowded. Penghulu Minggat permitted him to proceed upriver only to Nanga Stingam, where Bir made up his mind to find another place to live.

Incidentally, Bir, on a hunting expedition, followed the course of Sungai Manding, a small tributary of the Awik, to its source. At its headwaters, he found another stream flowing in a different direction. He named it Sungai Berangan for there were many berangan trees growing on either bank of the stream. When he returned to his house at Nanga Stingam, he took some of his men to explore more of the region of Sungai Berangan and the main river where it branches out. Apparently the stream empties into the Sebetan River, whose mouth is below the modern town of Saratok.

Afterwards Bir went down the Sebetan to its mouth where he observed bird-omens for seven days. While doing this, he saw a barking deer (kijang) swimming in the river. He knew that this omen was bad. But he was determined to have the Sebetan as his new place of settlement. Bir took all his followers from Nanga Stingam, Awik, to occupy the Sebetan. They built their first longhouse at Pengkalan Rumput (Grassy Landing Place). Later they moved on to Tembawai Emperan. Then they moved to Tembawai Panjai, where the main party split into three groups. These groups built their longhouses at Tembawai Lukut, Tembawai Ngitar and Tembawai Rungan.

Thus Bir became the founder of the Sebetan settlements. When he died he was greatly honoured in that his coffin was not buried but was placed on a platform or lumbong. Bir’s lumbong is still intact on the Naas range (Tinting Naas) near the longhouse of the Honourable Datuk Edmund Langgu, former Member of Parliament, at Sungai Klampai, Sebetan. The remains of Bir’s bones can still be seen there, inside a jar.

9.1854 Commission of Enquiry on Battle of Beting Maru opens in Singapore.

10.1854 Alfred Russel Wallace visits Sarawak.

17.10.1855 First meeting of the Supreme Council in Kuching,

18.10.1855 Dr. McDougall consecrated Bishop of Labuan.

4. 1.1856 Sarikei burned by the Julau Dayaks.___In the same month, Rajah James Brooke travelled to Sarikei and constructed a new fort for his perabangan (“brotherhood”) with Abang Ali and Abang Asop. An upset Sherip Masahor was excluded from Sarikei and he went on to build a force with his allies. Rajah Brooke could not ignore this and dropped the perabangan and reinstated Sherip Masahor in Sarikei in September 1857 in exchange for Brooke’s control of Mukah.It appears that five years after it was built by James Brooke, the Sarikei Fort was burnt down by the Sarawak force sent by Charles Johnson Brooke to capture Masahor. This fort was at Jalan Kubu Lama (Old Fort Road) along the Rejang River.

5.1856 The Borneo Company Limited registered.___The origins of British-based trading companies are to be found in the international mercantile networks which linked together Britain’s commercial centres with the rest of the world during the nineteenth century. One such network, drawing together participants with operations in Singapore and Sarawak, was formalized under the title of The Borneo Company Limited (BCL) between 1851 and 1856. To function effectively, these inter-personal networks of merchants required a high degree of trustworthiness among the participants in order to overcome principal/agent problems, since direct supervision from the headquarters in London was not feasible. However, in order to expand, it was necessary to widen the circle of network participants and to incorporate new types of competence. This contribution analyses the early history of BCL with a view to understanding the way in which the process of growth was managed, distinguishing between three different types of expansion: engaging in production as well as trade; extending the geographical scope of the organization; and diversifying into new markets.

19. 6.1856 Attack on Julau by Charles Brooke.

20. 2.1857 Chinese insurrection in Kuching.___ (Iban version) Linggir Mantu Perintah Raja Brooke Dialah Ka Bansa China Kheh Di Kuching (20/02/1857): Dalam taun 1857, bisi berita ngenyit datai madah ka perintah Raja Brooke di Sarawak udah dialah ka bansa China Kheh ke gawa ba lumbong mas ari Bau, Buso enggau Siniawan di Ulu Sungai Sarawak. Pia mega Tuan Muda Charles Brooke ari Kubu di Nanga Skrang bisi begerah mai tuai-tuai Iban Lingga, Skrang enggau Saribas mantu penusah tu. Nya alai laban nya OK Janting enggau anembiak iya ari Lingga mantu magang. Pia mega OK Gasing enggau tuai-tuai Skrang Ili sama bisi mantu. Ari Saribas, Linggir, Abang Apong enggau bala seduai iya sama bisi mantu ari Paku lalu Nanang, Luyoh enggau Ajie mega bisi mantu enggau bala sida ari Padeh. Bala Linggir merau ngena barung meraka tasik lalu bala sida Nanang ngena perau panjai. Datai di Kuching, lebuh betemu enggau Raja James Brooke, sida diasuh iya nitih ka China ke benung belalai di sabelah babas ari luar nengeri Kuching. Bala Iban lalu mupuk begiga ka China, belaban ngena nyabur, langai tingang, malat enggau ilang. Nyadi China ngelaban sida ngena tat, parang bingkok tang panjai bendar ulu, bulih lima depa pemanjai. Ngena duku enggau terabai Iban nyamai bendar nyilat pantap tat ke ngasoh China balat bendar rusak. Udah alah China, Abang Apong seduai Abang Aing ari Skrang enggai agi dibai tuai Iban ngiga China ke tasah ka dalam kampung. Semina bala Iban Lingga, Saribas enggau Skrang bebendar endar berasu ka China ke tasah tu. Lebuh kayau tu, Luyuh nampak bendar berani. Inggar bendar panjung iya pulai ari babas ba mua Tuan Raja empu. Pia mega lebuh kayau tu mayuh bendar Iban badengah laban munsuh enda mar dilaban, tang dengah siku-siku enda ulih kingat ka agi. Lepas mantu Tuan Raja ngalah ka China, Linggir nadai agi matak serang besai kadiri empu. Samoa pengawa kayau iya udah nya ngari ka Raja berari ari. Tang taja pen sida Linggir udah nundok ka Raja kenyau ari taun 1849, entara taun 1854 ngagai 1858, bala Balau agi mengkang ngaga pengachau ngagai Iban Saribas. Sida mungkal bunoh lalu nyerang Iban Saribas ke berikan di Tanjong Kauk dalam taun 1854. Sida mega nyerang perau Iban Saribas ke undor ka Kuching dalam taun 1858 kira sataun udah sida ke sama mantu Raja James Brooke ngalah ka China Khek di Kuching. Nyadi pengawa sida tu balat bendar ngasoh ati Iban saribas enda lantang lebih agi Ajie anak OKP Dana “Bayang”. Nya kebuah iya pulai ngelaban Raja baru lalu nyerang kubau Lily ke baru tembu di Betong kena 14hb. Tujuh, 1858. Tambah ka nya iya deka bebalas ka bala sida ke rusak bendar di Tanjong Kauk laban bala Balau. Iya pen selalu mai bala kayau anak ka Banting lalu nguta diri di Nanga Spak, pati Layar ke alai iya parai betempuh enggau bala Raja dalam taun nya.

2. 6.1857 First Sadok Expedition against Rentap.___In 1857 Libau “Rentap” was attacked for the first time at Sadok by ‘the Rajah’s forces under the Tuan Muda. During the fighting Abang Aing, a senior Native Officer of the Skrang fort was wounded, and as a result the government force retreated un¬conditionally.

In April 1857, the Tuan Muda with the Balau Iban from the lower Batang Lupar attacked Aji and OKP Nanang in the Padeh. After a very short fight, both OKP Nanang’s and Aji’s longhouse were burnt by the Balau Dayaks.

While he was at Betong after this expedition, the Tuan Muda called on Bunyau and his brother Maoh at Rantau Anak in order to persuade them to submit to the Brooke regime. After they consulted their people, Bunyau and Maoh asked the Tuan Muda what profit they would get if they submitted themselves to the rule of the white man. They also informed him that they would face much danger if they submitted to the government without first informing Aji and his followers in the Padeh and Linggir “Mali Lebu” and his people in the Paku. The Tuan Muda assured Bunyau and Maoh that if they submitted to the Brooke regime he would build a fort fully equipped with cannons at Betong. This fort was to be under their combined charge. In their hesitation, Bunyau and Maoh told the Tuan Muda that before they finally submitted to him, they must first consult their Malay neighbour, Datu Patinggi Udin of Betong. In their negotialion with the latter, the Datu said that he and his Malays were in the minority and therefore if Bunyau and his followers were to submit to the rule of the Brooke’s, they too would have to follow as they could not resist the Rajah’s power alone.

After their discussion was over, Bunyau and Maoh accompanied by Dalu Patinggi Udin went to the Tuan Muda’s boat to assure him that from that day onward they would be loyal to Brooke rule. Hearing this, the Tuan Muda assured Bunyau and Maoh that, if they went to “Sarawak proper” (Kuching) by boat, they need not be afraid anymore, as they were now the friends of the government and had no enemy to harm them as before. The Tuan Muda then commanded Bakir, the son of Bunyau, and Malina “Panggau”, the son of Maoh, to collect enough wood for the building of a fort at Munggu Senggang, Betong. The Tuan Muda directed them to work hard on behalf of their aged fathers, so that they could later become the pro-government chiefs-in-charge of the Betong fort. Having instructed Bakir and Malina in this work, the Tuan Muda also ordered Abang Kadir, the son of Datu Patinggi Udin, to help with the construction of the fort on behalf of his father, and, on behalf of the Sarawak government, the Tuan Muda promised to supply them with nails and carpenters.

Finally, before his departure, the Tuan Muda instructed Bunyau and Maoh to visit Linggir “Mali Lebu” in order to persuade him to submit to the Brooke Raj with them. He asked them to inform Linggir that the Balau and Sebuyau Iban had become loyal to the Brooke government, and therefore he should not be hostile to these people anymore. “If Linggir were to declare war against the Balau and Sebuyau Iban as he did in the past,” said the Tuan Muda, “the government of my uncle will surely aid the latter with guns which he cannot defeat.” At the same time, he instructed Datu Patinggi Udin to visit the Laksamana Amir and his eldest son Abang Apong of the Paku for the same reason.

After the Tuan Muda had gone back to Skrang fort, Bakir and Malina led all the lower Saribas Iban under the control of their family to start collecting belian for the fort at Betong. At the same time Abang Kadir led his father’s people to collect the strong nibong palm trunks to be split for the purlins to be laid across the rafters for the attachment of the roofing material.

At this time Aji, the chief of the upper Saribas, was busy visiting warriors and warleaders including Libau “Rentap” of the Skrang at Sadok. During his visits he incited them to support him and his warriors in a fight against the Sarawak govern¬ment which had extended its power over the people of the lower Saribas River, as it had done over the people of the lower Skrang after Linggir’s defeat at Beting Maru in 1849.

4.1858 Expedition against Saji.___When the fort was built at Betong under the joint supervision of Mr. J.B. Craickshank and Bunyau apai Bakir in 1858, Aji, the third son of the late OKP Dana “Bayang”, fought against all who had submitted to Brooke rale in the lower Layar River.

At the completion of the fort, Aji and his warriors from the Padeh and Ulu Layar attacked it with a few exchanges of fire, showing their complete disagreement with the people of the lower Layar under chief Bunyau Apai Bakir. At this time, Linggir “Mali Lebu” and all the people of Paku were completely neutral, as they had relatives in both of the quarelling groups.

Due to Aji’s action, the Tuan Muda led a force from the Skrang fort, composed of the best Skrang and Balau fighters, to punish Aji and his supporters. When the Tuan Muda arrived at Betong he was joined by the Iban and Malays of Betong under Mr. Watson, the Officer-in-Charge, including Bakir, Malina and the other fortmen.

The expedition was very well planned. At the request of Bunyau and Maoh, no other warboats went up the Layar ahead of those owned by the Saribas Iban. This was in order to save the lives of the ordinary people who were living beyond Nanga Padeh. However, when the force reached a big dry gravel bed at the mouth of the Sungai Langit, Aji suddenly appeared and came forward to attack the government force assembled in the river. Seeing him crossing the shallow rapids fully armed, a Malay man from Spaoh named Bruang shot him with his gun.

After Aji, the arch enemy of Brooke rule, had died, the Tuan Muda ordered his forces to stay one night at the mouth of Sungai Langit. Next day the forces divided into two columns. One column was sent to the Julau to punish Mujah “Buah Raya”, while another, led by the Tuan Muda, attacked Libau “Rentap” at Sadok. This later engage¬ment was known as the Second Sadok expedition.

Before the force had left, no Saribas Iban dared to behead Aji for fear of becoming the deadly enemy of his brothers and their followers. So it was decided that the Skrang should do it, as they lived safely near Fort James at the mouth of Skrang River. The latter agreed and so took Aji’s head back with them to the Skrang when the expedition was over. Several years later it was taken back and buried in the Padeh, for Aji kept appearing in his own shape or in the form of a crocodile which killed a number of people in the Skrang River.

1858 Fort Lili established at Betong.___Betong ‘s Fort Lily was built in 1858. Sri Aman’s Fort Alice was complted in 1864. After defeating the most famous Iban chieftain, Rentap, in 1861, Rajah Charles Brooke built the fort as a defensive structure controlling the Lupar River. It was built entirely of ‘belian’ (ironwood) timber with thick walls to withstand attacks. All of the original structure remains mostly intact. According to a recent report, it will soon be restored,after which this fort can become an extremely attractive place for foreign and local tourists alike. Fort Alice has a unique design. It is square, with a small tower at each corner. It has an open centre courtyard, a drawbridge (this is very Anglo-saxon indeed) and a spiked iron perimeter fence. Built to prevent the Skrang Dayaks going down river to join the Saribas Dayaks in their attacks on the coastal shipping trade,it was also to prevent them undertaking head-hunting expeditions. Over the years, the Fort served as a police station, community welfare department, prison department, and other government departments. Until 1964, a cannon was fired every day at 8pm sharp, signalling that the fort was about to close and the day’s business with the Government was over. A policeman would call out in Iban: Oh Ha! Oh Ha! Oh Ha! Jam diatu pukol lapan, Tangga udah di-tarit, Orang ari ulu, Orang ari ili, Nadai tahu niki kubu agi. (Oh Ha! Oh Ha! Oh Ha! The time is now eight o’clock, The steps have been drawn up, People from up-river, People from down-river, Are not allowed into the fort.) The fort was gazetted as a Historical Monument in 1971, and is now under the care of the Sarawak Museum.

14. 7.1858 Betong Fort captured by Saji.___When the fort was built at Betong under the joint supervision of Mr. J.B. Craickshank and Bunyau apai Bakir in 1858, Aji, the third son of the late OKP Dana “Bayang”, fought against all who had submitted to Brooke rale in the lower Layar River.

At the completion of the fort, Aji and his warriors from the Padeh and Ulu Layar attacked it with a few exchanges of fire, showing their complete disagreement with the people of the lower Layar under chief Bunyau Apai Bakir. At this time, Linggir “Mali Lebu” and all the people of Paku were completely neutral, as they had relatives in both of the quarelling groups.

8.1858 Second Sadok Expedition against Rentap.___After the death of Dayak Iban Warrior named Aji Apai Limpa, the large group of the Sarawak Forces erected a small stockde at Nanga Sungai Langit. From Nanga Sungai Langit they pushed on to the Nanga Tiga at the Upper Layar River. Nanga Tiga meant the three river mounth, which one of it flows from the Bukit Sadok, one from the watershed where rises the Kanowit River and Julau River, and the third main the Layar River.

Here the Sarawak Forces left their long paddle war boats and erected a stout stockade. Then they moved advanced up-country with Tuan Muda Charles Brooke who was in command of this second Bukit Sadok War Expedition in the year 1858 to defeat and capture the strong and bravest Dayak Iban War Leader Rentap. From Nanga Tiga they proceeded to Ulu Julau to attack Mujah “Buah Raya”. Here they defeated Mujah “Buah Raya” and they burnt their longhouses and destroyed the surrounding padi fields belonging to the Ibans. It was indeed a barbarious act by the Sarawak Forces. Women and childrens suffered greatly due to the loss of their homes and padi fields, and also their staple food.

After the return of the ravaging party , the Sarawak Forces marched toward Bukit Sadok. In this expedition they carried along a small mortar with them up the mountain. After half past ten in the morning they reached the summit of Bukit Sadok. Rentap and his war men were ready to defend themselves against the attack. The attacking party had erected a small stockade within firing distance from the Rentap fort. They fired fifty rounds of shell which made a little effect on the well fortified fort. Rentap had not returned the fire, and the place seemed to be deserted. Then some of the Tuan Muda Charles Brooke men have already moved very close to the stockade and then Rentap and his war men opened fire on them. The Rentap stockade was too strong for them to attack. Then some of the war chiefs on the Tuan Muda Charles Brooke side begged him to stop attacking Rentap, saying “We cannot pull down the planks with our own hands, we cannot climb over them and our small gun and musket shots make no effect on them.” Thus they decided to abandon the attack. The retreat began at once. This made Rentap felt more hilarious and he mocked them by saying “Bring all your fire guns from England and we are not afraid of you.” He and his men threatened and followed the retreating party down the hill with the discharge of guns, spears and poison arrows.

Thus ended the Second Bukit Sadok War Expedition. It was again a total failure on the part of the White Man. Their mortar seemed useless as it could not penetrate and destroy Rentap’s fortress which was impregnable. He won the battle and the White Man made no further attempts on his fortress until the year 1861.

1859 Fort Emma established at Kanowit.___Kanowit’s Fort Emma was built in 1859. (Note: it was built earlier than Fort Brooke).Built out of timber and bamboo,it was named after Emma Brooke, sister of Rajah Charles Brooke. The fort remains impressive, despite years of neglect. It is currently closed to the public.

Fort Emma was also the site of the last serious challenge to Brooke rule in Sarawak. In 1859, a number of Malay chiefs, led by Sharif Masahor of Mukah and supported by the Sultan of Brunei planned a series of attacks to kill all the Europeans in Sarawak and Dutch Borneo. In June 1859, Brooke government officials Charles Fox and Henry Steele were murdered at Kanowit as the first step of this plan. The Tuan Muda Charles Brooke led a force of Iban from Saribas to revenge the attack and to recover the heads of the unfortunate victims. As a result, Mukah was annexed to Sarawak, Sharif Masahor fled to Johore and the “Malay Plot” was the last time the Malays and the Iban joined forces against the White Rajah.

7. 6.1859 Kanowit Fort captured by Dayak insurgents.

7.1859 Kabah Expedition

2.1860 Sherip Masshor attacked at Sadong.

15. 4.1860 Sherip Masshor defeated at Igan.

31. 7.1860 Charles Brooke’s attack on Mukah frustrated by Governor Edwardes of Labuan.

1. 7.1861 Sir James Brooke recovers Mukah and deports Sherip Masshor.

8.1861 Nyalong attacked.

11. 8.1861 Coast as far as Kidurong ceded to Sir James Brooke.

28.10.1861 Third Sadok Expedition and final defeat of Rentap.___When Rentap realised that it was useless for him to defend the fortress of Bukit Sadok any longer, he commanded his war men to leave it from the opposite side of the mountain. Now the attacking party of Tuan Muda Charles Brooke under cover of the musket shot, rushed over the neck of the rock and entered the fortress through the holes made by the shots from “Bujang Sadok”.

They found that Rentap and his war men had escaped except for the dead and dying. Inside the fortress they also found the arms captured by Rentap when he fought against Alan Lee and William Brereton at Lintang Batang stockade in 1853. A large quantity of gun powder and the famous one armed iron cannon named the “Bujang Timpang Berang”. That afternoon the Sarawak Government Forces attacking party burnt down Rentap fortress at Bukit Sadok. A guns was fired and in ten minutes a tongue of flame shot up into the sky with thick black smokes. At dusk the summit of Bukit Sadok was seen burning for miles and miles away. It marked the end of Rentap’s power over the White Rajah’s and his long career as a great Dayak Iban war leader where he got the title of Raja Ulu, but he won’t surrender his life to the White Rajah’s. Rentap and his war men did not surrender but retreated to Bukit Lanjak Entimau at the headwaters of Batang Skrang, Lemanak and Engkari. He then moved down to the Ulu Entabai the branch of Kanowit and Julau and made another fortress at Bukit Setulak. At his old ages he moved to Karangan Panggil in Ulu Wak, Pakan and died at old ages in the year 1870. He was not buried, but his remains was kept according to the symbol of the Dayak Iban warrior, but honourably laid down to rest in peace in a mortuary known by the Dayak Iban as “Lumbong”.

His tomb, the “Lumbong” is still intact today located at the summit of Bukit Sibau at the headwaters of Budu/Kabo River of Saratok and Wak River of Pakan. His remains was before kept in a large ceramic jar but it was later placed inside a coffin after the reburial of his remains was done in October, 1989 which was done by the Sarawak State Government in the Dayak Iban traditional heroes burial ceremony named Gawai Ngelombong. Rentap’s principal enemy, Sir James Brooke the first White Rajah of Sarawak was born in India on 29th.april, 1803. he was proclaimed the Rajah of Sarawak on 24th.September, 1841 and retired due to ill health in 1863, about two years later after the defeat of Rentap at Bukit Sadok on 25th.October,1861. He died at Burrator, England on 11th.June,1868 at the age of sixty five and buried at Sheepstor Churchyard.

Another principal enemy of Rentap’s was Sir Charles Brooke, the Second White Rajah of Sarawak who was born on 3rd.June,1829 at Berrow Vicarage near Burnham, Somersethire, England. He was proclaimed Rajah in place of his uncle Sir James Brooke on 3rd.August,1868. he died on 17th.May,1917 at ther age of eighty eight and was buried beside the tomb of his uncle, Sir James Brooke.

Nanang who plaed a key role at the time of the final Sadok War Expedition on 28th.October,1861 received his father’s title of “Orang Kaya Pemancha” from the Second White Rajah, Sir Charles Brookeat a ceremony at Fort Alice at Simanggang (now known as Sri Aman) in 1882. he served the Government Of Sarawak as a member of the Supreme Council representing the people of Upper Saribas until his death in 1901. he was succeeded by his son, Penghulu Insoll of Buloh Antu, Padeh until 1912.

Rentap was a man of principal. He swore that he would never see the face of a White Man again in his life. He met several defeats but never surrendered. He had been branded as a great rebelious Dayak Iban War Leader, hunted high and low and yet he manged to live until he met his natural death during the period of his retirement from active war fighting. He fought gallantly defending his country land and his people from several attacks made by the intruders until his whole power was broken on 28th.October,1861 but not his life.

His name is still mentioned and remembered today as a great Dayak Iban Chief and Dayak Iban War Leader and aslo the the Hero Of Bukit Sadok in the history of Sarawak and Malaysia.

1862 Fort Brooke established at Sibu.__In 1862 The Rajah of Sarawak constructed Fort Brooke and established an administrive centre on the island situated at the point where the Igan branches off the mighty Rejang River. Thus began the history of Sibu becoming the most important trading port on the Rejang River.

Sarawak Gazette, 24th January 1871, No 16,

Sibu is the principal place on the banks. It is built on an island where the Igan leaves the Rajang to carry its water to the neighbourhood of Oya…and consist of a strong wooden fort, a Chinese bazaar and a considerable Malay Kampong…

A very old picture of the wooden Brooke Fort can be found on Page 3 of “Sibu of Yesterday” by Sarawak Chinese Cultural Association. From this book, we learn that the fort was demolished in 1936. Why was it demolished?

It is possible that the Brooke Fort was built on the same site as the offices of the Rejang Port Authority. This would be the place where the Rejang parts with the Igan.

23. 5.1862 Defeat of the Illanun pirates off Bintulu.___ Way back in 1867, an Italian botanist organised a truly ”wandering’ and botanical expediton to this part of the world to study its biodiversity(today’s term). In the same year he stumbled upon the fort at Bintulu. Locally called ” kubu”, the Bintulu fort then was in deplorable conditions having made entirely of wood. However it was his best hotel for the few nights and rainy days he spent in Bintulu,then a sleepy hollow. To retract a bit, a few years earlier, the Sultan of Brunei had sold Bintulu area and its northern most point of Tanjong Kidurong for 6000 dollars to James Brooke. Presumably having failed to suppress piracy along the coastal regions of Sarawak and the persistence demand of James Brooke government for the establishment of security and rule of law to the local inhabitants so that trade with the British will not be hampered. And of course with their power entrenched here would permanently discourage the Dutch to extend their sphee of influence to the nortern strip of Borneo. So the story goes, about this time the Illanun pirates of Mindanao in Southern Phillipines who frequented these areas were most feared by the ” orang putih” or whiteman. New, bigger and faster boats or ships need to be purchased by the Brookes administration to play catchup and make the pirates run for dear life. As an example in 1862, a bunch of these Illanun pirates attacked present day Mukah. But The Raja Muda( Charles Brooke) managed to ward them off after a fight and of course by means of a new steamer called the “Rainbow”. Good investment back then. However undeterred by this ruinous attempt, they reorganised themselves and gathered strength for an all-out attack on the Bintulu Melanaus. This decison by the Illanuns proved fatal and a turning point for their murderous fortunes. Not waiting for the arrival of British warship and support the local Bintulu Melanaus took matters to their own hands. They came out in an equally stronger force and managed to fight off the pirates at the bay of Kidurong ( somewhere around the waters of present day Bintulu port area). After a resounding defeat in the hands of the Bintulu Melanaus, the Illanun pirates called it a day. Never again would they ply the coastal routes of Sarawak. Now you can say “Yes” to the Bintulu Melanaus! Thus as it was conventional thing to do in those days, the British set up fort at Bintulu. Made entirely of wood, it stood there for a while and reflected a strong presence of British rule in northern Sarawak with Bintulu as the focal point of safety and governance. By a little stretch of magination, you can feel the symbolism when the Sarawak flag was flown over the fort. Imagine for a while when Charles Brooke , the Raja Muda (and later to take over the reins from James Brooke), sending a prisoner of war to the Kayan chief named Oyong Hang slightly earlier in the year. The messenger( prisoner) brought home an ultimatum to his paramount chief viz A cannon ball and the Sarawak flag. The chief was required to choose either one. The ammunition of war to signify aggression or the flag for peace. Guess what? To the good luck of Raja Muda , the Kayans appeared at the doors of Skrang fort holding the flag. Hooray for now!. Of course in later years, circa 1868, the fort was reconstructed and renamed Fort Keppel in memory of one of the most daring pirate busters of the Britsh empire and who happened to play a major part in suppressing piracy to the aid of James brooke in Sarawak as early as 1843. A check on the Britannica online, shows that Henry Keppel was later knighted as Sir Henry Keppel for his may successful exploits against pirates of the South China Seas, and in particular Sarawak. Thus, my earlier post, mentioning the photograph of the fort taken in 1868. What transpired in the walls of the fort in 1867? History have recorded that the first ever democratic gathering was held in there. The first in the region, now called Malaysia. Here we witnessed the first meeting of the “orang putih “residents and local communal chifefs. The agenda looked pretty much like this: a) To ask reparation from the Sultan of Brunei, who had earlier allowed the Sarawak flag to be insulted, by sending his tax collectors on Sarawak territory. The council to decide on the indemnity required from the Sultan of Brunei. b) Any other communal matters.

15. 5.1863 The Great Kayan Expedition.

Early in 1863, the Tuan Muda, who was posted at Skrang, visited Betong fort. On his arrival, he directed the Assistant Resident, Mr. Watson, to call ail the leading chiefs, Bakir, OKP Nanang of the Padeh and Linggir of the Paku to come to meet him at the fort. When they came the Tuan Muda directed them to build warboats for a punitive expedition against the Kayans and Kejamans of the upper Rajang. The latter, had given refuge to Sawing, Tani and Skalai the murderers of the Government Officers Messrs. Fox and Steele at the Kanowit fort. Sibu was to be their point of assembly and the date for all to arrive at Sibu was fixed during this meeting.

From the Saribas, the Tuan Muda went to Kabong, then the headquarters of the Kalaka District, to meet Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” for the same purpose. These two chiefs had migrated recently to the Awik and the upper Krian from the Rimbas.

Early in May 1863, all the Batartg Lupar, Saribas and Kalaka warboats assembled at Kabong to proceed to Sibu. On arrival at Sibu they found that Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” boats had already arrived from the Krian and were waiting for the warriors from the Saribas and Skrang led by the Tuan Muda and Mr, Watson.

The Tuan Muda assembled the chiefs together. During the assembly he informed them that the purpose of the expedition was to punish the Kayans and Kejamans for hiding the murderers of Fox and Steele, and for making raids against the Iban of the upper tributaries of the Rajang River. He directed that the Saribas boats under OKP Nanang, Linggir, Bakir and the Krian flotilla under Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” must not go far from his while going upriver into the enemy’s territory.

The force left Sibu on the next morning and went up the Rajang as far as the Kanowit fort where they stayed one night. At this station they were joined by the Kanowit Iban under Mujah “Buah Raya”, Ubong and Lintong “Moahari”.

Early on the second day, the force left Kanowit and went up as far as the mouth of the Katibas River, where they spent another night. Here a force of Iban led by chiefs Balang, Ringgau, Unggat and Gerinang joined the expedition. At this time no Iban had migrated up the Rajang above the Katibas tributary. In the presence of the Tuan Muda, Balang vowed that he and his warriors would not retreat until they had killed many of the enemy to revenge all those of his people who had been killed by the Kayans.

From the mouth of the Katibas River the force went up the Rajang and spent the third night between the Kapit stream and the Baleh tributary. This force was the greatest that had ever joined in one expedition.

The force broke camp early on the fourth day, but due to difficulty in getting across the Pelagus rapids they only reached Pasir Nai by late afternoon. As the force arrived at Pasir Nai, the enemy under chief Dian Abun began shooting from their stockade at Nanga Sama.

Penghulu Minggat’s boat instantly advanced and landed at the fort. Shortly after landing, Penghulu Minggat’s warrior Luing led a party in an attack upon the fort. The door of the fort was closed, so Luing used a wooden shaft to ram the door open. As the door opened, Luing was speared and killed by a Kayan defender inside the fort. His body was promptly carried back to the boat by his friends. Due to this death, the Tuan Muda ordered that the force not venture beyond the enemy’s stockade that evening.

In the evening the Tuan Muda called a council of war, for upriver from this point lay the Kejaman and Kayan settlements. In the conference, he directed a number of trusted warriors to stand guard against a surprise attack on the government forces. After the warriors who were to guard the troops had been selected and had taken their posts, the Tuan Muda ordered all the Kanowits and the Rajangs to station them¬selves slightly upriver above the Iban aad Malay boats. This arrangement was made because only they could understand the Kejaman and Kayan dialects, if the enemy should came to attack the force.

During the night, the enemy vacated the stockade. In the morning some of the Ibans and Malays said that they had heard the- enemy call the Rajang and the Kanowit peoples in their own dialect which the Iban and the Malay could not understand. Early that morning when the force surrounded the stockade, they found that it had indeed been vacated. Consequently, many native leaders suspected that the enemy had been allowed to escape because they had made a secret arrangement with the Kanowit and the Rajang peoples.

From Pasir Nai, the force proceeded up the Rajang. Aided by their intimate know¬ledge of the country above this place, the Katibas forces under Gerinang, Unggat and Balang raided one big Kejaman longhouse full of women and children, and killed or captured almost all the inhabitants. On their return from the expedition, their boats could hardly carry the enemy heads and the captives. They were helped to transport their loot, captives and heads by Kanowit warriors under Mujah “Buah Raya” and Lintong “Moahari”. The latter also killed a considerable number of enemies, but were not so fortunate as the Katibas group.

Because of their ignorance of the country, the forces of the Saribas and Skrang were not so successful as those of Katibas. The warriors under OKP Nanang of the Padeh killed only a few of the enemy, as did those under Penghulu Minggat, Bakir and Chulo “Tarang”. The warriors under Linggir of Paku had better success, since those who joined Birai’s war boat killed and captured a considerable number of the enemy to add to those killed by the warriors who steered Linggir’s own boats.

Besides killing and capturing the enemy, many Ibans took as loot valuable Kayan jars, knives and mats. Among those still remembered, Linggir of the Paku looted one sergiu jar now kept by his great-grand daughter at Tanjong, Paku.

After the expedition was over a number of Kayan chiefs went down to Kanowit to submit themselves to the Tuan Muda. The Tuan Muda said that their submission could not be accepted unless the criminals Sawing, Skalai and Tani were surrendered to the government. The Kayan chiefs assured the Tuan Muda that they would hand over those criminals as requested, for the sake of peace in the region. Later the Kayans handed over Sawing to the Government and he was executed at Sibu. Skalai and Tani who had escaped were killed by the Kayans in the upper Rajang.

27. 9.1863 Sir James Brooke finally leaves Sarawak and appoints Charles Brooke his deputy.

1864 Fort Alice built at Simanggang.

After defeating the last of the major Iban chieftains, Rentap, in 1861, Rajah Charles Brooke the second Rajah of Sarawak, built Fort Alice in 1864 as a defensive structure controlling the Lupar River. It has a commanding view of the river to stop any threats coming from upriver. It was built entirely of belian (ironwood) timber on top of a high hill with thick walls to withstand attacks. Much of the timber used was taken from an earlier fort, Fort James Brooke, which had been built further upriver in Nanga Skrang. However, Fort James was built on lowland and was hard to defend, as was proven in 1853 when one of the Rajah’s officers, Alan Lee, lost his life in an attack by the Iban chieftian Rentap. It was decided to dismantle Fort James and to rebuild it in a more strategic and more defensible site in Simanggang District (now Sri Aman Division). Thus Fort Alice was built. Most of the original structure remains substantially intact, but it is in an extremely dilapidated and run down condition and sadly in need of restoration work.

19. 1.1864 Britain recognises Sarawak as an independent state and appoints G.

T. Ricketts consul.

4.1865 First Meeting of the Council Negri.

6.1865 Visits of Dr. Odoardo Beccari.

1867 Opening of the Matang coffee estate.

1868 Fort Keppel built at Bintulu.

1868 First Katibas Expedition. Iban unrest in the Katibas Rivers.

From Nanga Lubang Raya near the source of the Batang Ai, Naga and his brothers Sumping, Maoh, Api and Murap migrated to the Kanyau in Indonesian Borneo. Before they left the country they invited Temenggong Simpi Pala of Rantau Panjai to come with them. But the Temenggong refused as he was reluctant to leave behind his guardian spirit who lived at Bukit Kaong.

On their arrival in the Kanyau, Naga and his followers lived at Emperan Kawat and subsequently at Kerangan Labu. Here they were raided by lower Batang Ai Iban from Kumpang. Due to this trouble Naga led his followers to the headwaters of the Katibas on the Sarawak side of the border. In this new country they first settled at Jekelan and then later moved to Emperan where they were attacked by joint forces of Kantu’ and Embaloh Dayaks. These enemies came from the Kanyau and Ketunggau tributaries of the Kapuas River. To escape this danger they moved to Batu Gong, and then settled at Tekalit. While Naga was still living in the Katibas he transferred his chieftainship to his sons Unggat and Gerinang.

In 1868 when Mr. J.B. Cruickshank was serving as Resident in the Rejang, Unggat and Gerinang came to see him at Nanga Ngemah. When the Resident asked them of the general affairs of the Katibas, Unggat replied that all was tranquil with the exception of a senior warrior chief named Balang who had returned victoriously from the warpath against a tribe called the Lusum. Unggat told Mr. Craickshank that Balang and Ringgau had come to him and his brother Gerinang twice to invite them to join them to murder the Resident. He told Mr. Craickshank that Balang was to hold a feast next day in honour of his recent victory over the Lusum. Mr. Craickshank, upset by the news, told Unggat and Gerinang that he personally would attend Balang’s festival next day.

Early next day Mr. Cruickshank went to Balang’s longhouse. When he reached the longhouse landing place, he called for Balang to come down to fetch him up to the house. Balang was surprised by the arrival of the Resident whom he had not invited to the feast, but he reluctantly agreed to fetch him to his house. When Balang greeted him at his boat, Mr. Cruickshank ordered that he should be arrested, chained and brought down immediately to Sibu for detention. Later in the month it was said that Balang had been executed at Pulau Selalau near Sibu because of his reported plot to murder the Resident.

In retaliation Balang’s son-in-law, his uncle Enjop and the latter’s son publicly declared that they would fight against the rule of the Rajah of Sarawak in the Katibas River. The reason they gave was Balang’s execution without trial, by a court of justice.

Before the revolt began, the relatives of Balang already knew that Balang’s execution was due to Unggat’s jealously and the false story he had told the Resident about Balang’s intention to murder him. So Enjop and his relatives went to Unggat’s house, to force him and Gerinang to join their rebellion against the Rajah. Hearing this, Unggat said that the reason why Balang was executed was because he had raided the Lusum in the upper Rajang. They replied to Unggat that Balang would not have been sentenced to death for this, for the Lusum were enemies of the Katibas, and had not submitted to Brooke rule. Besides this, they said that the government should not sentence Balang to death without a trial.

Gerinang asked Enjop and his relatives to give him and Unggat time to discuss among themselves whether they agreed to join them in rebelling against the govern¬ment. He said that to fight against the government was dangerous and required very careful consideration. Enjop and Balang’s son-in-law said that they already had asked the people of Kanowit and Julau to support their rebellion.

Later Unggat and Gerinang told Enjop and his relatives that they could not reinforce them since, as they put it, they could not seek victory against the warleaders of the Saribas and Skrang Iban who were their relatives, and were now siding with the government.

Due to the joining of Unggat and Gerinang with Enjop and Balang’s relatives in their enmity against the Rajah, fighting suddenly broke out in the Katibas in 1868.

While Naga and his people lived at Batu Gong they were twice attacked by the Rajah’s force during the first and second Katibas expeditions against Enjop, the brother of Balang, in 1869 and 1870. In his wrath against the government for executing Balang unjustly, Lintong ‘Moahari” of Kanowit attacked the Sibu fort in 1870, the year of the second and third expeditions launched by the Brooke government against the Katibas Iban.

During the first Katibas expedition, Manggi’s bong tekam boat defeated the Rajah’s boat; thereby causing the latter’s troops to retreat unconditionally. But during the second expedition this same boat of Manggi’s was driven back and Manggi and many of his warriors were killed.

Enjop and his followers were reinforced by Iban from Julau, Kanowit and Kanyau in Indonesian Borneo. This trouble continued until 1871 and involved three successive punitive expeditions.

After Manggi’s death, Naga ordered a warrior of his, named Ridun to lead a migra¬tion into the Baleh River. Ridun and his followers settled temporarily at the mouth of the Selidong stream near the mouth of the Baleh. There they met with a lot of trouble. They were attacked by the Logats and Ukit tribes. To avoid this Ridun moved to Resa in the Yong stream, where he died of old age. Around the same time Naga died in the Katibas.

Due to the revolt of the Katibas Iban, the upper Batang Ai Iban under chief Ngumbang, while reinforcing their relatives, were attacked by the Rajah in 1868. These troubles were the first signs of what became continuing unrest in the headwaters of the Batang Ai and the Batang Rajang which was to last until 1919.

Labar succeeded Ridun as leader in the Yong. From Yong, Labar led a migration to the Baleh and lived at the mouth of Kemali stream just above Lepong Kain, While Labar and his people were settled there, they were frequently attacked by the Lugats, who lived along the Gaat tributary. Labar died at the Nanga Kemali settlement, and the Baleh Iban no longer had an influential leader, as Unggat and Gerinang lived far away in the Katibas. Due to this, the Baleh Iban sent for Mujah “Buah Raya” of the Julau and Entabai to lead them against the Lugats at Nanga Gaat. Mujah “Buah Raya”, with two hundred warriors went to attack over one thousand of the enemy. The latter defended themselves bravely, but their wooden shields were broken by the stones thrown by Mujah’s warriors, and they were defeated. After their defeat the Lugat fled to the upper Baleh and lived at the Nanga Laii, Nanga Sengkala and Nanga Singut settlements. From these longhouses they fled once more, escaping further Iban raids, to the Mahakam River in Indonesian Borneo. In this new country they are said to have settled at a place called Bila Baii.

Many years later, after the Iban had defeated the Lugats at Nanga Gaat, a Lugat chief named Oyong Ojat, came to visit an Iban longhouse at Nanga Sembawang. In his conversation with this host, he said that when he was a boy he had been one of the people defeated by the Iban under Mujah “Buah Raya” at Nanga Gaat. He could remember his family’s house before it was attacked by Mujah’s men.

In the Katibas, after Unggat and Gerinang had died, they were succeeded as chiefs by their sons Keling and Mata Hari, who led a great number of Iban to the Sut, Gaat and Mujong tributaries of the Baleh. The people of these Rivers still regard the descendants of Naga and Sumping as being of their original line of chiefs, for their ancestors led the migrations from the Batang Ai to the Kanyau, Katibas and finally to the Baleh River where these Iban live today. (Naga & Sumping were the descendent of Seremat Chief named Bau and Salengka mentioned earlier in EIM Part 2 who was also directly related to Saribas, Batang Ai, Dau & Balau Iban)

From Pulau Ensulit in Indonesia, Jubang moved up the Piang River and settled temporarily at Emperan Tebelian. From this settlement, he and his people migrated into the Katibas in Sarawak territory via Sungai Ayat in order to settle at the Bangkit stream. From the Bangkit, Jubang and his people moved down the main Katibas River to the Rajang and then up that river to settle in the Sut, a tributary of the Baleh. While he was living in the Sut, Jubang joined Gerinang’s war against the Pieng Dayaks in the Mahakam River in Indonesian territory, and there he was killed. At the time of his father’s death, Koh lived at Nanga Dia where he was appointed Penghulu by the Raj all because he had obeyed the government wishes in not taking revenge upon the Julau Iban who had killed his cousin named Lanau during the fighting at Bukit Balong.

After he had attacked the Piengs, Gerinang led another war against the Lusum Dayaks at Keluan and defeated them. As a result of this the Lusum Dayak fled to settle in the Baram. In their place at Keluan, the Badang Dayak have lived there to the present day. Gerinang was imprisoned by the Rajah for this attack on the Lusum, but later he was appointed Penghulu, succeeding his deceased grandfather Penghulu Keling.

In Jubang’s company from the Katibas there was a Nanga Delok man named Melintang. When he arrived in the Baleh he was permitted by the chiefs of that river to live with his followers in the Merirai tributary. He was appointed the first Penghulu of that river in 1942 but died shortly after his appointment. After his death he was succeeded by his grandson the late Tun Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Temenggong Jugah, the former Federal Minister for Sarawak Affairs after Sarawak was given in¬dependence within the Malaysian Federation in 1963.

Jubang, the father of Temenggong Koh, left Lubang Baya in the Batang Ai to migrate to the Kanyau River where he lived at Pulau Ensulit. It was at this settlement that he married Garong, the daughter of chief Ba, and their child was Temenggong Koh, the well known Iban chieftain of modern Sarawak, who died in 1955.

3. 8.1868 Charles Brooke proclaimed Rajah.

11. 6.1868 Sir James Brooke dies at Burrator, Devon.

7.1868 The Delok Expedition.

29.11.1868 Mukah Fort captured by the prisoners. I

1869 First issue of Sarawak stamps.

12. 4.1869 Last Illanun pirates exterminated off Kidurong.

18.12.1869 Suez Canal opened.

1870 St. Thomas’s School built (on site of present St. Mary’s).

1870 Government Chinese School opened at Paku, Bau.

13. 5.1870 Sibu Fort attacked by Lintong and Kanowit Dayaks.

6.1870 Second Katibas Expedition.

26. 8.1870 First issue of the Sarawak Gazette.

11.10.1870 Installation of Rajah Charles Brooke.___Charles, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke; 3 June 1829 – 17 May 1917), born Charles Anthony Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke,[1] as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo.


Charles was born in Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Somerset, in England, to the Rev. Francis Charles and Emma Frances Johnson, the younger sister of Rajah Sir James Brooke. Francis and Emma had other children: Captain John Brooke Johnson (1823–1868) (later Brooke Brooke), Mary Anna Johnson (b. 1824), Harriet Helena Johnson (b. 1826), Charlotte Frances Johnson (b. 1828), Captain (William) Frederic Johnson (b. 1830), Emma Lucy Johnson (b. 1832), Margaret Henrietta Johnson (1834–1845), Georgianna Brooke Johnson (1836–1854), James Stuart Johnson (1839–1840), and Henry Stuart Johnson (b. 1841).

Charles was educated at Crewkerne Grammar School and entered the Royal Navy. He adopted his uncle James’s name and entered his service in 1852 as Resident at the Lundu station. In 1865, James named Charles as his successor.

Charles married Margaret Alice Lili de Windt at Highworth, Wiltshire on 28 October 1869; she was raised to the title of Ranee of Sarawak with the style of Her Highness 28 October 1869. They had six children, three of whom survived infancy:

Dayang Ghita Brooke (1870–1873)

James Harry Brooke (1872–1873)

Charles Clayton Brooke (1872–1873)

Vyner of Sarawak (1874–1963)

Bertram, Tuan Muda (1876–1965)

Harry Keppel Brooke, Tuan Bongsu (1879–1926) [1]

Evidence also exists (see Reece cited in references below) that Charles Brooke had another son, Esca Brooke, born of a liaison with a native Malay woman which was unrecognized in English law. Esca was later adopted by Rev. William Daykin and moved to Canada.

 1. 5.1871 Civil Marriage introduced.

7.1871 Third Katibas Expedition.

15.12.1871 First census of Sarawak.

31.12.1871 Sarawak Budget balanced for the first time.

1872 Peak year of antimony production (3,285 tons).

31. 1.1872 Opening of the Sadong coal mine.

4.1872 Harvests fail throughout the Rejang.

17. 4.1872 Indigo introduced into Simanggang.

5.1872 First Gambier and Pepper Proclamation.

1872 Gutta percha boom.

1872 Lighthouses on Tanjong Po and Tanjong Kidurong.

2. 7.1872 The Rajah visits Batu Gading and Lubok Bendera in Baram.

12. 8.1872 Kuching so named officially instead of Sarawak. j

2. 9.1.872 Sarawak Rangers formed.

19. 9.1872 Baroness BurdetteCoutts sells Quop Estate.

1.12.1872 Opening of the Rajah’s Arms; first hotel in Kuching.

25. 2.1873 Government Salary Scales published.

1. 5.1873 Sarawak Chamber of Commerce established.

1. 6.1873 Residencies of the First, Second and Third Divisions established.

1.11.1873 Cholera epidemic in the Rejang.

16. 3.1874 Smallpox epidemic in the Rejang.

3. 6.1874 New Court House in Kuching opened.

6.1874 Kayan insurgents expel the Bruneis from the Baram.

26. 9.1874 Charles Vyner Brooke born.__Vyner was born on September 30 1874 in London England to Raja Charles and his wife Ranee Margaret de Windt. His youth was spent attending the finest schools in England. As a young man he served in various capacities within his fathers government. He became Rajah at Kuching on July 22, 1917 at Kuching.

Raja Vyner would continue the modernization and protectionist policies set by his predecessors and Sarawak would continue to develop and prosper. He continued to respect local culture and traditions with the exception of headhunting which he went to great length to extinguish. Christian missionaries were banned from attempting to convert natives.

Revenues from the booming rubber and oil industries allowed him to further modernize the country’s institutions. Under Vyner’s reign Sarawak established a penal code, an airport, a forest reserve, a post office, an official civil police force, and the first Malay language newspaper. In exchange for 200,000 pounds needed for personal expenses, Vyner accepted the limiting of his absolute authority by a new constitution.

1. 7.1875 Sarawak Steamship Company formed.

5. 7.1875 Kapit Fort inaugurated by the Rajah.

10.1875 First Ulu Ai Expedition.

12.1875 Second Ulu Ai Expedition.

3. 1.1876 Second Gambier and Pepper Proclamation.

7.1876 Great smallpox epidemic in the Baram.

10.1876 Fourth Katibas Expedition.

1877 Thirty pikuls of pepper exported at $11 per pikul.

1877 Antimony output shrinks to 469 tons.

6.1877 Cholera epidemic.

26. 3.1878 Collection of specimens ordered for the Museum.

1878 Beginning of the gambier boom.

1878 Fort Charles established at Kabong.

1879 Sarawak dollar worth four shillings.

29. 4.1879 Expedition against Lang Endang.

11. 8.1879 Completion of road from Sungai Semengok to Quop.

1880 Fort Margherita built.

22. 4.1880 Door Tax raised from 80 cents to $1.

10. 8.1880 Para rubber first referred to in the Gazette.

11.11.1880 Chinese Immigration Proclamation.

1881 Bishop Hose plants the first three para rubber seeds.

9. 2.1881 First Bukit Batu Expedition.

18. 5.1881 Suai attacked by Dayak raiders.

1881 Borneo Company commences working gold at Bau.

21. 7.1881 Foundation of the Roman Catholic Mission in Kuching.

6. 9.1881 Second Bukit Batu Expedition.

1.11.1881 British North Borneo Company charter granted.

19. 6.1882 Cession of coast from Kidurong to Baram.

19. 7.1882 Foundation of Claude Town (Marudi).

1. 9.1882 Gazette refers to oil having been found in Miri a few years previously.

1.11.1882 Lighthouse on Tanjong Sirik.

1.12.1882 Promulgation of Land Ordinance in final form.

1. 1.1883 Penrissen road opened to the eleventh mile.

21. 5.1883 First Government Malay School opened.

11. 8.1883 Council Negri decrees the abolition of slavery to be effective in 1888.

27. 8.1883 Krakatau eruption.__The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa began in May 1883 and culminated with the destruction of Krakatoa on 27 August 1883. Minor seismic activity continued to be reported until February 1884, though reports after October 1883 were later dismissed by Rogier Verbeek‘s investigation.

In the years before the 1883 eruption, seismic activity around the volcano was intense, with some earthquakes felt as far as Australia. Beginning 20 May 1883, three months before the final explosion, steam venting began to occur regularly from Perbuatan, the northernmost of the island’s three cones. Eruptions of ash reached an altitude of 6 km (20,000 ft) and explosions could be heard in New Batavia (Jakarta) 160 km (99 mi) away. Activity died down by the end of May, with no records of activity until mid-June.

Eruptions started again around 16 June, when loud explosions were heard and a thick black cloud covered the islands for five days. On 24 June an east wind blew this cloud away and two ash columns were seen issuing from Krakatoa. The new seat of the eruption is believed to have been a new vent or vents which formed between Perbuatan and Danan, near the location of the volcanic cone of Anak Krakatau. The violence of the eruption caused tides in the vicinity to be unusually high, and ships at anchor had to be moored with chains as a result. Earthquake shocks began to be felt at Anyer (Java), and large pumice masses started to be reported by ships in the Indian Ocean to the west.

On 11 August, H.J.G. Ferzenaar investigated the islands. He noted three major ash columns (the newer from Danan), which obscured the western part of the island (the wind blows primarily from the east at this time of year), and steam plumes from at least eleven other vents, mostly between Danan and Rakata. Where he landed, he found an ash layer about 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) thick; all vegetation had been destroyed, with only tree stumps left. He advised against any further landings. The next day, a ship passing to the north reported a new vent “only a few meters above sea level” (this may be the most northerly spot indicated on Ferzenaar’s map). Activity continued through mid August.

 13. 1.1884 Belaga Fort completed.

20. 1.1884 Most of Kuching Bazaar destroyed by fire.

9. 2.1884 Further oil discoveries at Miri.

3. 9.1884 Insurrection in Limbang against Bruneis.

1.10.1884 Reported flight of 2,000 Belaits and Tutongs to Baram.

21.10.1884 Mr. Consul Treacher makes peace between Bruneis and Limbangs.

1885 Present St. Thomas’s School built.

3. 1.1885 Cession of Trusan.__Iban Version:The Iban massacre at Trusan.__While Jungan and his followers were on their way home in 1884 they met a lot of Paku Iban under Utik and Gajong in two sailing boats headed north. Those who were in Utik’s boat were Gajong, Antau, Kalom, Ujan, Melebar, Maji and Kelali. At this time few families in Paku had saved more money than Utik’s family. Because of this, he and his brothers Nyanggau, Munan and Nuing were able to bring with them on this voyage the sum of nine hundred silver dollars. When they came to the Trusan River, they went up it and eventually tied up their boats at a Murut village landing stage. From there they went to the Murut house in order to buy jars. The Muruts appeared to be friendly and promised to help Utik and Gajong’s people get jars from their own people who lived further inland. Due to this good atmosphere, Utik and his friends were very happy; they waited for jars to be brought to them at the landing place.

It happened that one afternoon, Maji went out to look for jars in a neighboring Murut village. After talking with his hosts, he stayed the night in one of their homes. While Maji was staying in the Murut’s house that night, Ukit and Gajong and their respective followers who were in the boats asked the bard, Kelali, to sing renong samain (love songs) in order to make themselves happy. They did not sleep until early in the morning. At about 6 a.m. Kelali, who slept at the front part of the boat, woke up to wash his face. While he was doing this, he was suddenly shot by the Muruts. The unwary Kelali was killed and fell into the river. After this, the Muruts shot at the boats time and again. Seeing the danger, Ngadan jumped into the river to swim to the opposite bank. While swimming he was also shot and died in the water. Timbang also jumped into the river. He was shot in the buttocks. But he continued to swim slowly down river, and while he was swimming he received another wound on his leg from an enemy’s spear. While Timbang swam, he heard the repeated sounds of gun shots fired at the boats. At this moment Gajong, who was quick enough to equip himself with a knife, jumped to the bank to fight the enemy. He fought them very hard, and a number of the enemy were wounded and probably killed by his knife. But the enemy’s strength overpowered him, and he was caught, fastened with a rope and finally slain. Gajong was very strong and nearly invulnerable, which made it hard for the enemy to kill him quickly either with fists or knives. Utik left his boat later than the rest and fled into the jungle. The enemy struck at him as he passed them, but he parried their blows and managed to escape and save himself.

After some time Timbang, who had swam downriver, landed and slowly crept up the bank. He reached a mass of thick raka creepers which covered the huge trunk of a durian tree, and climbed up it. Later, as he sat hidden inside these thick creepers, he heard the shouts of Gajong and his opponents who were still fighting. According to Timbang’s story it took several hours for the enemy to slay Gajong. After Gajong had died, the enemy looked for Timbang downriver. While they were doing this, Timbang saw a huge hawk flying slowly above the tree top where he was sitting. He said that before then he had never seen such a huge bird.

Timbang who was suffering painfully from his wound, sat hidden quietly on the tree branch inside the thick creepers. While he sat there, he heard the enemy looking for him. They claimed they had found his trail of blood, but could not find the man who made it. After a while the enemy stopped their search and went away. That night Timbang left his hiding place quietly and went towards the enemy’s landing place, where he looked for a canoe he might use to go downriver. He found one, but without oars. So he paddled with his hands, till he reached a landing place belonging to the Tidong people. The Tidong are a race of indigenous people who had been recently converted to Islam. A Tidong family took pity on him and fed him and carefully tended his wounds. The next morning the Tidong transported him to the island of Labuan. On his arrival there, after he had reported the matter promptly to the British government, the surgeon operated and removed the bullets from his buttock. He was later treated by the government.

It happened that only a few days after Timbang had come to Labuan, Utik who had fled through the forest finally arrived at the Island. He too reported the massacre of his companions in the Trusan River to the government. After Timbang and Utik had been in Labuan for some days, H.H. the Rajah arrived there by yacht from Kuching. When he was told about the treacherous murder of his subjects by the Muruts at Trusan, he took Utik and Timbang back with him to Kuching. During the voyage, the Rajah told them that the Brunei Muruts of Trusan, under chiefs Ukong and Dayong, must be taught a lesson as soon as possible by means of a punitive expedition. The Rajah also accused the Brunei government of being unable to control its subjects who continually attacked small bands of Sarawak jungle-produce workers and traders.

Arriving in the Saribas, Timbang and Utik informed their chief, Penghulu Garran, of the incident. He promptly gathered all his best warriors to accompany him to ask for the Rajah’s permission to take revenge on the Trusan Muruts. But in his audience with the Rajah, the latter told Garran not to take the law into his own hands. The Rajah told him that he would consult the Brunei government officially about the matter. “If the Sultan does not take immediate action”, he said, “I will personally lead a punitive expedition from Sarawak to punish the Muruts and take over their country.” The Rajah asked Garran and his followers to return to the Paku. He also said that if he made war on the Muruts he would tell Pengarah Ringkai of Rantau Anak to ask them to join his force. From then until the expedition against the Trusan Muruts, negotiations with the Brunei government continued. When the Sultan and his officers would not condemn the murderers of the Saribas Iban, the Rajah annexed Trusan in 1885 without paying any money to the Sultanate of Brunei. Eventually, in May of 1900, the punitive expedition against the Muruts under Ukong and Dayong took place, and a considerable number of the enemies were killed. It was during this war that Penghulu Garran’s warrior Malina “Bujang Brani” changed his praise-name to “Balai Nyabong Nanga Trusan” due to his success in killing the enemy. He was attached to Pengarah Ringkai’s war boat. Penghulu Garran of Paku died in July, 1900, two months after this expedition.

28. 7.1885 Fourth Division established. (Kidurong to Baram and Trusan.)

11.1885 Further insurrection in Limbang against Bruneis.

1886 Discovery of the Santubong rock carving.

3.1886 Expedition against Kedang.

1887 Fort Florence established at Trusan.

1888 Construction of Kuching General Hospital (now gaol).

6.1838 Rajah Charles created Knight Grand Cross Order of SS. Michael and George.

6.1888 Great Cholera epidemic.

13. 6.1888 Britain guarantees Sarawak protection as an independent state.

27. 6.1888 Peacemaking at Lubok Antu between Kapuas and Ulu Ai people.

9.1888 Brunei becomes a British protectorate.

9.1888 Rajah acquires Brooketon Colliery.

11. 1.1889 Sibu bazaar destroyed by fire.

1. 7.1889 Sarawak dollar worth two shillings and ten pence.

9.1889 Smallpox epidemic.

The chronology of the following years is as yet incomplete.

17. 3.1890 The Rajah accepts the accession of Limbang.

2. 4.1890 B.C.L. gold works at Bidi opened.

3.10.1890 First race meeting in Kuching.

8.1891 British Government recognises annexation of Limbang.

4. 8.1891 The Sarawak Museum opened.

1.11.1891 Consecration of St. Joseph’s Church in Kuching.

10. 7.1891 Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Kuching.

25.11.1893 Fort Charles at Kabong washed away by the sea.

30.11.1893 The Rajah opens the B.C.L. Gold Works at Bau.

3.1894 Rejang lbans attack Punans.

6 8.1894 The Great Penyamun Scare.

8. 2.1894 The Governorship of North Borneo offered to the Rajah.

19. 6.1894 The Chermin Expedition.

25. 6.1894 The Yong Expedition.

11.1894 Kayans and Kenyahs in Baram attack Ibans.

12.12.1894 New building of St. Joseph’s School opened.

27. 5.1895 Expedition against O.K.T. Lawai in ulu Limbang.

8.1895 Rickshaws introduced into Kuching.

1. 1.1896 Penrissen Road reaches Segu.

31. 7.1896 SS. Rajah Brooke wrecked on Acasta Rock near Victory Island.

1897 Commencement of estate rubber planting in Malaya.

1.1897 Government takes over Matang coffee estate.

1.1897 Sarawak dollar worth two shillings and one penny.

1. 1.1897 Dog licensing introduced in Kuching.

12.1897 Sarawak dollar worth one shilling and eleven pence.

10.12.1897 Proclamation against Dayaks soldiering in British North Borneo.

31.12.1897 Sarawak dollar worth two shillings.

3.1897 The Bantin Expedition.

11. 1.1898 Bantin raids from Delok.

4. 2.1898 Marriage Registration Order.

16. 3.1898 Opening of R.C. school at Bau.

18. 8.1898 First ice factory in Kuching.

9.1898 First settlement of Hakkas at 3rd Mile, Rock Road.

1.1899 Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits visits Limbang and Baram.

8. 4.1899 Great peace making in the Baram.

8. 6.1899 The inhabitants of Tutong and Belait raise the Sarawak flag.

13.10.1899 Sarawak adopts the penny post (4 cents = 1 penny).

31.12.1899 Sarawak dollar worth two shillings and one penny.

1900 Establishment of the Methodist Mission in Sibu.

26. 2.1900 Admiral Keppel revisits Kuching.

3. 5.1900 The Trusan Expedition. read more here

3. 5.1900 Expedition against Okong in Ulu Trusan.

1. 7.1900 Kuching telephone service established.

1. 8.1900 Rating introduced into Kuching.

1.10.1901 Sarawak silver dollars to be legal tender.

28. 1.1901 Arrival of the first Foochow immigrants in Sibu.

1902 Dahan estate started.

9. 6.1902 The Cholera Expedition, Delok.

20. 8.1902 Pending signal station established.

Oct. & Nov., 1902 Visit of Colonial Commission of Chicago University.

4.10.1902 Expedition of Penyabat and Engkari.

Penghulu Dalam Munan attacks Rumah Jimbau, Ulu Engkari.

In 1902 Penghulu Bantin of the Ulu Ai and the people under Penghulu Munau apai Laja and his son Kana of Engkari rebelled against the government. To disrupt the peace, Bantin and Kana and their fighters attacked people at several places, parti¬cularly their neighbours, the people of Lemanak. Consequently, the Rajah commanded Munan, the Penghulu Dalam of Sibu, Penghulu Insol of the Padeh, Saribas, and Penghulu Banta of the Skrang to attack the rebels at Engkari. Banta’s and Insol’s forces went to war according to the date decided upon by the Penghulu Dalam.

In the course of the war, the forces from Saribas and Skrang were badly beaten by the enemy. Thirteen of their warriors were killed. But in spite of this defeat, Insol took a firm vow to fight the enemy till all his warriors had safely returned to their own ground.

With the lower Rajang and Kanowit Iban, numbering altogether abput 900, Munan set out from Kanowit. He passed the headwaters of the Katibas and went on to the headwaters of the Engkari, where he found the traces of an encounter only a few days old which had taken place between the Skrang and Saribas forces and the enemy. From the number of dead found, it was evident that there had been severe hand-to-hand encounters. It was feared that the Skrang and the Saribas had lost twenty or more men.

Seeing this, Munan realised that the Skrang and Saribas under Banta and Insol must have gone ahead of him several days earlier. He was unable to join them due to the distance and because he was not certain of the route they had taken. In this way the war plan was complicated, and the Saribas and Skrang forces suffered because of it.

Munan ordered his force to stop not far from a big house under a headman named Jimbau. It was said that this house contained many Ulu Ai people who had come to reinforce Jimbau, when the Saribas and Skrang were known to be approaching. Here Munan called a council of war to select three of his most trusted warriors to spy on the house that coming night and a dozen others to guard the main force by watching for the enemy in case they came to attack them by surprise.

After these warriors had gone out on duty, Munan called three of his leading warriors, Ajah of Binatang, Ajah of Entaih and Ajah of Melangan. He suggested that if any of the three failed to kill an enemy, he should never again be called Ajah. Though this was spoken as a joke, Munan’s words strongly encouraged the three Ajahs in the coming assault.

At about midnight the spies came to the enemy’s house, where the people were celebrating the feast of enchaboh arong, in which the bards sang their chants of praise to Singalang Burong, Lang Betenong, Keling, Bunga Nuing, Laja and Bunga Jawa and other gods of war, who had given them an easy victory over the enemy. While one of Munan’s spies sat quietly below the floor of the house, just where Bantin and other leaders were sitting, he heard a certain woman coming to speak to Kana. She told him that in her sleep early that night, she had a very bad dream. “In my dream,” she said, “I saw a great number of the enemy attacking us in this house.” She warned Kana and the others to prepare for fighting. Hearing this, Kana asked who this enemy could be, since the Saribas and Skrang forces had been defeated and the survivors had all gone back to their places. “I do not believe any other enemy can suddenly fall down from heaven to attack us,” said Kana. Hearing these words the leading spy took his companions to rash back to inform Munan about what they had heard and seen during their spying.

After Munan had been told that the enemy was celebrating an enchaboh arong festival in honour of the head trophies they had taken a few days earlier, he commanded the force to march and attack the house before dawn the next morning. On their arrival at the house the three Ajahs and seven others including Banyi apai Ibi of the Julau took the lead and fought the enemy along the gallery (ruai) of the longhouse. It being still early in the morning a considerable number of the enemy was drunk and so was easily killed by Munan’s fighters.

While these men entered the house, the rest of Munan’s fighters waited for the enemy to come out of the house down the ladders of the individual open platforms (tanju) and from the family rooms (bilek). When the fighting was at its height, Munau apai Laja and his son Kana, trying to escape, carried Munau’s daughter down the ladder from the tanju. Because of their pemenga charms, Known as “Batu Lichin”, a Chinese and an adopted son of Munan, waiting for them below the ladder, was shocked and taken aback, which give the chance for Kana, his father and his sister to escape unhurt.

After the fighting was over, Munan ordered that the house be burnt along with three others in the same vicinity. After the fighting was ended it was found that 53 of the enemy had been killed including the stragglers and 5 captives taken by Munan. Only two of his men were missing.

8.11.1902 Expedition to Pau, Ulu Ai.

1903 Teak for pepper $46.

1. 7.1903 Opening of Government Lay School.

1. 8.1903 Straits dollar introduced into Malaya.

2. 6.1904 Vyner Brooke proclaimed Rajah Muda. Following the death of his father, Vyner succeeded on 17 May and was proclaimed Rajah on 24 May 1917 at Kuching. He took the oath before the Council Negri on 22 July 1918.

Vyner’s early years as Rajah saw a boom in the Sarawak rubber and oil industries and the subsequent rise in the Sarawak economy allowed him to modernise the country’s institutions, including the public service, and introduce a penal code developed on British India lines in 1924. Granted a knighthood in 1927, Vyner continued to run a hands-off and relatively popular administration that banned Christian missionaries and fostered indigenous traditions (to an extent; headhunting was outlawed). Sarawak, however, was not immune to Japanese imperial ambition, which manifested itself in Sarawak on 25 December 1941. In that same year he withdrew £200,000 from the Treasury for his personal expenses, in exchange for limiting his powers by a new constitution.

Reading the signs, Vyner had already evacuated his family and himself to Sydney, Australia, where he would remain for the duration of the war.

The Daily Telegraph described him as “a cloud-living Old Wykehamist, … one of the few monarchs left in the world who could still say ‘l’Etat, c’est moi’.” Similarly, his Who’s Who entry read thus: ‘Has led several expeditions into the far interior of the country to punish headhunters; understands the management of natives; rules over a population of 500,000 souls and a country 40,000 square miles in extent.’

Abdication and later life Vyner returned to Sarawak on 15 April 1946 and temporarily resumed as Rajah, until 1 July 1946 when he ceded Sarawak to the British government as a crown colony, thus ending White Rajah rule in Sarawak. Vyner died in London at No. 13, Albion Street, Bayswater, W2 on 9 May 1963 , four months before Sarawak was formally incorporated into the Federation of Malaysia. Vyner, his father and Rajah James, are buried in St Leonard’s Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor. Family He was survived by three daughters:

  • Dayang Leonora Margaret, Countess of Inchcape, wife of firstly the Earl of Inchcape (one son, Lord Tanlaw, and one daughter) and, secondly of Colonel Francis Parker Tompkins (one son).
  • Dayang Elizabeth, a RADA educated singer and actress, wife of firstly Harry Roy (one son and one daughter),and secondly, Richard Vidmer until her death.
  • Dayang Nancy Valerie, wife of firstly, Robert Gregory, an American wrestler, secondly, José Pepi Cabarro – a Spanish businessman, thirdly, Andrew Aitken Macnair (one son, Stewart, born 1952), and fourthly, Memery Whyatt. She died in Florida.

30.11.1904 Sarawak adopts the Straits dollar.

2.1904 The Rajah Muda’s expedition against Bantin.__

Keterubah iya Bantin bulih pemerani iya nya ari mimpi asai ka nemuai ngagai rumah sida Keling di Panggau Libau. Datai iya din, iya lalu deka ngerumban ngagai Panggau Keling Aji ke berani tau serang, laban iya keras bendar deka batemu enggau Keling seduai Laja. Tang enda mukai-mukai, Bunga Nuing (Sempurai) tak ngasuh iya enda tau enda duduk ba ruai iya. Bantin lalu duduk dia lalu Bunga Nuing pan nanya ka pejalai iya. Bantin madah ka diri minta pengaruh awak ka iya tau serang. Bunga Nuing madah ka diri nadai ngembuan pengaruh ngasuh tau serang. Iya lalu nyumpah Bantin pemulih reta, lalu rita iya bulih utai deka didinga orang kadudi hari ila. Nambah ka nya Bunga Nuing nyumpah Bantin nadai utai munuh. Datai ka besi pan enda ga munuh iya. Datai ka ngendua hari pan iya bamuk enggau munsuh nadai ga iya bisi apa nama. “Umor nuan panjai”, ko Sempurai, “alu saumor nuan deka nyadi manuk sabung orang.”Nya alai Bantin amat pemulih reta enggau nyadi manuk sabung sida Penghulu Ngumbang “Berauh Langit” seduai Penghulu Imba ti tebilang nama dalam Batang Ai rambau nya kelia (pengujung abad 1800 A.D).

Pengacau Di Kanowit
Nyadi lebuh menua kacau di Kanowit menya, Bantin. Allam enggau Kana sama enggau belanggar ngelaban bala Rajah Brooke ti diulu ka Munan “Penghulu Dalam” semak Wung Adai. Tuai Iban bukai mega mayuh ngampar mantu iban di Kanowit. Iban ari Batang Ai bisi parai. Kana putus tunjuk lebuh iya ka ngeluan ka perau Bungkap. Nyadi perau Batu Celing diluan ka Apai Mayan ari Kanowit.

Apin sida belanggar, dia tuai Iban siko ka datai ari dalam Sungai Merurun ka benama Mantuk lalu bejako, “Enti kitai belanggar ari ulu Nanga Merurun, aku enda enggau,” ko iya. Ari ninga jako Mantuk nya meh kebuah sida belanggar ba Wung Adai.

Manuk sabung Ngumbang ka betu berani nya Bantin, Belayung enggau Pilang. Bala Bantin maiuh agi nepan ba perau Bungkap ka diluan ka Apai Mayan ari Kanowit. Serta udah parai Apai Mayan, Perau Bungkap lalu di tinggal ka sida ka agi ulih rari. Semina Bung Peluoi aja agi ulih bai pulai.

Nyadi manuk sabung Imba nya Gung, Rengga anak Bantin, Bakat enggau Kancau. Tang Rengga anak Bantin parai kena racun tuai Kayan ka benama Anyi Buah, ke datai ari Mendalam, Ulu Kapuas ba rumah Lirung di Ma Suling. Nyadi pati nyawa Rengga nya $60/- ka diletak perintah Belanda ka mesti dibayar Kayan.

Nyadi pugu berani ke ba-ngepan baju subak beujuk buuk ke tanda sida Raja Berani nya Ngumbang, Bantin, Imba, Bangkung, Kana enggau Baro. Nyadi nama sida tunggol berani ari Emperan enggau Batang Ai nya baka tu:

1. Temenggung Demang “Buah Raya”
2. Temenggung Sandah “Guntor Dalam”
3. Jalal “Pintu Batu, Pintu Petara, Pintu Pudu Antara Menua”
4. Renggi (Apai Biti) “Keting Nyempal”
5. Asan (Apai Anyom) “Panti Tulang”
6. Simpai “Pintu Tapang”
7. Injak “Bunga Tengang”
8. Anyom Anak Asan “Batu Begitang Nanga Kelawit”
9. Unau “Rimau Badang”
10. Idieng “Lang Bedindang Nanga Peluk”
11. Intu “Patuk Nyenguk”
12. Serunggang (Unggang) “Antu Gerasi”
13. Layang “Biau Balai Tasau Menua”
14. Barau “Gung Senuyung”
15. Ngumbang “Berauh Langit”
16. Bantin “Ijau Lelayang”
17. Mugo “Keting Nyempal”
18. Mumin “Kera Kurus Ragau Ragau, Pedang Semiap Pala Nilau”
19. Sumbu “Alun Panjai Cibai Manggum Bulu, Bantai Ka Enggi Dek, Adu Ka Enggi Aku”
20. Rengga (Anak Bantin) “Ambun Belabuh Wung Padung, Asap Melap Nanga Sukung”
21. Kuyah “Langau Nanga Bon”
22. Nam (Anak Bantin) “Ringin Beratung Nanga Bon”
23. Jugo “Burik Menaul”
24. Kana “Ngitar Tanah Dinga Di Pala Wung, Keting Lasah Ngikil Lubang Tumbung”

Jerita ditusoi Pengulu Bantin Empu:
“Tiga taun udah bebaik, bebunuh babi di Lubuk Antu, aku pindah ka Ulu Deluk lalu berumah di Nanga Lalang. Lebuh aku diau dia, bisi iban siko benama Bujal datai ari Badau. Iya tu buta. Pejalai iya endang ati deka ngundang kaban diri ka diau di Kumpang. Lebuh iya bejalai kin, iya tesat ngagai umai orang ka alai iya lalu dibunuh orang di Kumpang.”

“Ninga hal tu Perintah Belanda ka megai menua sepiak ka Kalimantan Indonesia, lalu deka ngatur pekara nya ngena adat Iban. Ninga munyi nya, lalu bejako Pateh Jalin, Pateh Lanting enggau Pateh Baning, tuai Iban ari Emperan. Nyadi ko sida, “nitih ka adat Iban menua tu, enti Iban bisi parai dibunuh orang, bangkai sundang bangkai, darah sundang darah.”

“Orang Emperan, menua penatai Bujal, lalu begiga ka tuai awak ka bisi matak bala nyerang orang Kumpang. Tuai sida Pateh Jalin. Iya tu endang kitai Iban tang bebini Memaluh lalu nyadi tuai Memaluh mega. Nama bini iya Tumpuk, ka enggau iya beranak ka Temenggung Langit. Nyadi nama mentua lelaki iya Dana, endang “Semagat” besai bansa Memaluh din. Reti jako “Semagat” tu Tuai Kampung, ukai sama pangkat enggau orang gelar “Pateh”.

“Nyadi bala Pateh Jalin ka ngayau ka Kumpang lalu di tinggang aku, enggau tuai kami Ulu Ai bukai, baka Penghulu Alam, Imba, Penghulu Baro enggau Kijam. Semina Penghulu Ngumbang enda enggau kami. Jalai kami ninggang enda ngili Batang Ai tang mintas ka Badau. Datai di Kalimantan kami nikal laban Pateh Jalin jai mimpi. Endor kami nikal tu didinga pangkung setawak ari Lubuk Antu.”

“Ninga penyarut tu alai Rajah Muda (Vyner Brouke) mudik ka Lubuk Antu enggau tuan Resident Owen enda ngasuh Penghulu Ngumbang enggau tuai bukai mantu laya orang Emperan.”

“Kita Penghulu Ngumbang, Barau, Munau, mesti ngukum orang ka bisi enggau ngayau nya sapikul ninting buah rumah,” ko jako Rajah Muda tusoi Bantin.

“Maiuh orang ngisi ukom, tang sida ka enggai ngisi nya enam buah rumah, nitih ka pemutus aum sida ba rumah Umping di Nanga Jerangku dalam sungai Betung, pati Menyang.”

“Lebuh aum nya mega Kana madah ka diri deka bebalas ka sida ka kena bunuh bala Munan ari Batang Rajang, lebuh sida agi diau di Ipuh. Lebuh nya bala diulu ka Munan ngamuk kenyau ari Lubang Baya lalu ngili ka Batang Ai naka Nanga Kaung. Kana lalu nanya ka sapa bagi sida ka deka ngeluar ka pati nyawa enti sida alah bunuh, alah tanah lebuh betempuh.”

“Enggi aku tajau dua igi,” ko Kibung.

“Enggi Aku tajau sigi,” ko Alam

“Enggi aku itung ka tangkap ka tutup enggi kita, iya aku nadai tajau,” ko Baro.

“Aku pan pia meh, ka tutup bisi,” ka saut Jumba

“Laban seduai menyadi iya Abung sama madah ka diri ngeluar ka tangkap magang, nyadi aku empu ngeluar ka tajau sigi.” ko Bantin.

“Imba madah ka diri nadai tajau, tang madah ka sida menyanak endang ati nganjung nyawa enggau seput diri, dulu deka, dudi deka.”

“Nama main nuan enda nyaut deh Ngumbang?” ko Penghulu Allam nanya. “Aku, Engkabuh, enda tau nyerang mungkal orang. Enti rumah aku empu apin retung ditunu munsuh, aku enda tau niri ka bunuh,” ko Penghulu Ngumbang.

“Enda nuan nemu kami kena pungkal Munan di Ipuh?” ko Penghulu Allam.

“Lebu amat kami meda nuan jadi enggau menyadi kami Rabai. Lebu kami ngurung remaung nyaris nyawa, lebu kami nguban ka nabau beliur bisa enti nuan enda enggau kami niri ba bunuh,” ko Ugil.

Angkat Belayung, tak enda bejako, mincing baja lalu deka malu pala Ngumbang. Tang laban ka di rara orang bukai nya alai iya enda datai ba Penghulu Ngumbang.

Udah nya, serta udah abis aum tu, orang rumah Ugil enggau rumah Penghulu Allam lalu bedampa beratap ka daun lung awak ka nyamai ditunu bala Rajah enti sida bisi datai nyerang kia. Endor dampa sida tu di Nanga Menyang.

Nyau deka matah taun nya (ditusoi Bantin ngagai Rajah Carles Brouke), alai indu anembiak diasuh orang ke tuai rari ngagai rumah aku ke ba Bila Dua di Nanga Lelang dalam Deluk. Sakeda rari ngagai rumah Penghulu Baro, lalu bisi sakeda nya belangkau sabelah nya dia.

Orang ke tuai lalu ngupas menalan endor bebunuh di Menalan Ketupung, Ulu Deluk, agi melaling ngalih ari Batang Ai, apin datai bendar ba antara menua Sarawak enggau Kalimantan Barat, kira agi dinga pangkung bendai ari antara menua.

Benung sida ngupas menalan tu alai bisi datai orang mai keresik, tubai, kain indu, bunga jarau enggau papung rutan dikirum ka Maja seduai Julai ari Seremat. Ko pesan seduai iya ba orang nya, “enti Bantin enda nyadi ngayau, tu tubai asuh dempa iya. Tu kain orang indu asuh rasuk ka iya ngambi ka iya nyadi orang indu. Nyadi kersik tu ngasuh iya mai bala besai enti tubuh iya enda maiuh enggai ka enda cukup ka ungkup kami,” ko orang nya nyampai ka pesan.

Tang iya ka bendar, utai tu ukai datai ari Maja seduai Julai ari Seremat, tang dikirum ka indu siko ka benama Semambu laban iya agi ringat ngagai Julai seduai Maja ka tegal seduai nya udah becara ka temuda ngelaban unggal Semambu ka benama Berandak apai Unggom di Sebangki. Lebuh mansang becara ka Kucing, Berandak parai laban perau iya karam di pangka ka gelumbang besai di Sebandi.

Nyadi Penghulu Ngumbang lalu enggai enggau ngayau. Iya rari ngagai Genting Kayu Malam, ka betampung enggau tinting Bukit Pan, ba antara menua enggau Kalimantan Barat. Nya alai Imba lalu nyadi tuai kayau nganti Penghulu Ngumbang. Tang Imba madah ka diri enggai nyalai antu pala, samina jadi ka tuai kayau aja iya deka, semadi nganti Penghulu Ngumbang ti enggai. Imba lalu bejako madah ka enti dengah ulih bala naka sigi aja, awak ka dengah nya disalai Kibung. Enti dengah dua, disalai Allam. Lalu enti maiuh agi ari nya, lalu disalai aku (Bantin).

Lebuh sida ka begau nya, Kana bedengah sigi, lalu Rengga bedengah sigi mega. Nyadi sida kana menyadi semina datai mantu aja, laban sida Batang Engkari enda ngaku enggau bebunuh. Orang bukai bisi mega bedengah tang enda maiuh. Pulai nya, datai ba pengkalan ba nanga Sungai Kaung, kami lalu belator nyalai pala.

“Lak ka dengah Kana disalai Kibung, dengah kedua disalai Allam, lalu iya ketiga disalai Bantin,” ko Imba.

“Aku enggai meri dengah aku. Kami menyadi Saung, Nuing enggau aku empu, enti orang ngambi dengah aku, hari kami menyadi bebuai nyawa sahari tu,” ko Kana.

“Uh…Enti pia enda ibuh meh, anang kiruh nyalai dengah iya nuan Kibung, anang ibuh nitih ka ator Imba. Nya keba manah Kana bedengah, awak ka dikena meransang ati sida Engkari minta bunuh kitai,” ko Allam. Kibung lalu madah ka diri tak sepangator bala maiuh. Aku enda keras deka empu pala,” ko iya. Udah nya kami lalu mulai ka diri ngagai rumah aku di Bila Dua di Nanga Lalang.

Udah pukas kayau tu nya baru bala Rajah Muda enggau Tuan Resident Owen datai ngalah ka kami. Umai kami, laban padi nyau mansau lalu enda diketau, laban nadai hari limpang tembu kiruh nganti bala Rajah datai.

Kayau tu ti di kumbai orang Kayau Buntu dalam taun 1902. Lebuh kayau tu, perintah ngaga kubau tiga buah. Sabuah di Nanga Mepi, sabuah di Menyang lalu sabuak di Nanga Deluk. Orang ke mantu perintah ba kayau tu maiuh amat, ari menua bagi Kedua lalu ngerampit bagi Ketiga enggau ari Kucing sama bisi datai magang.

Nyadi bisi orang Engkari siko benama Mambang bebini ka Batang Rajang. Iya bisi nyadi ka raban orang ke mantu bala Rajah. Tang lebuh mudik nya, datai di Nanga Engkari, iya terjun ari perau lalu bedarat ngulu ka Engkari ngagai menua iya empu. Nyadi bala kami ke nganti penatai bala Rajah di Nanga Deluk bisi belator nyadi wan ai. Sida nya tubuh tiga: Rengga, Gung enggau Bakat anak Imba. Lebuh jaga, dia sida bisi meda orang ili mansa pulai ari ulu ngambi orang ari rumah Undom di Nanga Beretik nunduk ka Rajah. Lebuh sida tiga tu tadi ngemata ka bala orang tu, sida bisi ninga orang nyadi bendar mutah. Udah siko, siko ga mutah.

“Kada enda sumpit Ngelantar orang Nanga Ngemus bala sida nya,” ko sida tiga bejako enggau diri sama diri. Nyadi Ngelantar, ari rumah Jumbo ke enggau orang betembung di Nanga Ngemus nya udah sama enggau kami betiki ka bukit. Siko ari orang ka mutah dipeda sida lalu parai. Pala iya udah nya lalu dipumpung sida tiga ke jadi Wan Ai, tang bangkai iya ditumbak ka ba kepit Batang Deluk enggau Batang Ai.

“Udah nya sida tiga lalu mai pala ngagai tembung bala. Sida tiga lalu diasuh orang ka tuai diganti Surik anak Imba, Sumbu anak Langit enggau Kucau jadi ka wan ai. Datai di Nanga Deluk dia sida ninga orang maiuh bendar mutah. “Ouuu…tentu tu penyakit,” ko sida tiga, ke lalu rari kemaia nya. Datai sida di Lalang, aku lalu ngasuh sida enam ke sama udah nyadi wan ai rari ke bukai enggai ka penyakit nya ngerampit orang ke udah dia. Tiga malam udah nya anembiak Ngumbang bisi datai lalu madah ka penyakit nya enda ngerampit orang empu menua, laban Kumang seduai Lulung nyadi nabau bisi datai nulung Bantin, pia ko pesan Penghulu Ngumbang. Utai tu diambi sida dalam mimpi.”

“Enda lama udah nya bala Rajah ngayau baru. Bala Abang Abol betiki ari Nanga Pan ngagai wung ka deka endor kami ngeram ka ipa ba tucung Bukit Pan. Nyadi bala Abang Abol bisi nusoi bala kami bisi nan dia ngagai bala Rajah ke lalu ngelaung nengah jalai bukai. (*Note: diatu sekayu keladan ke udah deka ditebang ka pengarebah dia agi idup). Nyadi bala Rajah ka ngelaung nya tadi lalu mintas ka puting Tinting Pan semak antara menua enggau Kalimantan Barat. Meda sida ngelaung bala Iban lalu dibai aku enda ngamuk. Bala Rajah lalu terengkah ba rumah Asu di Ulu Pan.

Lepas penyarut nya, baru aku betampung berumah enggau Allam di Langgung Tengang. Lebuh kami berumah dia bala Rajah datai. Tang sida enda ngalah ka kami, laban kami lari ka Ulu Malom, Segentu enggau Uli Ubang ngalih ari pegai perintah Belanda. Rumah ditunu kami empu kejang kami lari. Lebuh kayau tu, orang ulu enda alah, orang ili pan enda mega. Lalu perintah Belanda mejam ka mata, enda ngari ka Iban lalu enda mega ngari ka bala Rajah. Semadi bisi ripot ari orang, baru perintah Belanda nyalah bala kami.

Apin lama udah bekau nya bala Penghulu Ngumbang nyerang Skrang, ngalah ka rumah Empurung di Nanga Blai, laban sida Blai nya bisi mantu bala Rajah nyerang Ulu Ai. Rumah Empurung enda alah, laban mar di alah ka. Rumah nya berseberai enggau penatai sida Penghulu Ngumbang. Lebuh serang Penghulu Ngumbang tu, Asun “Bah Tunggal” seduai Megung ari Entabai sama bisi datai mantu Penghulu Ngumbang. Pateh Jalin empu lan ba pun pending kena timbak orang ka empu rumah.”

Pecah Tusut Nurun Ka Penghulu Bantin “Ijau Lelayang” Ari Tusut Bui Nasi.

1 Bui Nasi x Putung Kempat = Guntar (f)
2 Guntar x Linggi = Sengalang Burung Biak
3 Sengalang Burung Biak x Kecendai Lawai = Tincin Temaga Biak (f)
4 Tincin Temaga Biak x Ketupung = Bunsu
5 Bunsu x Simpang-Impang Biak = Punggang Batang
6 Punggang Batang x Putung Kempat = Kumpang Seladang
7 Kumpang Seladang x Kumbang Marau = Dayang Nor
8 Dayang Nor x Telu Aur = Radin Tanjung, Dyg. Idah
9 Radin Tanjung x Dayang Lungah = Pateh Ambau
10 Pateh Ambau x Remias = Liang, Babang, Ganggung, Nunung, Jubang
11 Ganggung x Medana = Ciri, Jampi, Jeluie (f), Jimbat, Sendie (f)
12 Ciri x Sungguh = Ganja
13 Ganja x Laka = Tumbu (f)
14 Tumbu x Baling = Entayan (f)
15 Entayan x Lawang = Sedau, Gindau, Anting (f), Empiang (f)
16 Sedau x Lada = Megung, Bundung, Umah (f), Mampak, Radin

17 Mampak x Peranda = Betia
18 Betia x Mandah (f) = Lemba (f)
19 Lemba x Jubin = Riang, Arai (f), Anca (f), Gaduh, Bedil
20 Arai x Sarran = Ajie, Luyuh
21 Ajie x Bawang = Apol
22 Apol x Juna = Penghulu Tembak
23 Penghulu Tembak x Empuna = Bujang, Biju

17 Radin x Dayang = Burai (f), Nyanggai
18 Burai x Malang = Linggi, Mamut
19 Mamut x Cangkeh = Lumit (f), Cellengga (f)
20 Lumit x Betie = Sunggau
21 Sunggau x Juyu = Sanjan
22 Sanjan x ? = Guntur
23 Guntur x Riung = Bawin
24 Bawin x Ejuk = Aduk
25 Aduk x Encan = ?20 Cellengga (f) x Uru = Dampa
21 Dampa x Demi = Penghulu Bantin “Ijau Lelayang”, Kerudau
22 P. Bantin x Limbun = Rengga, Selan(f), kinsor (f) Dunge, Nam
23 Rengga x Beduk ak. P. Alam = Ijo, Janam
24 Ijo x Layau = Sergeant Bantin, Jawa
25 Sergeant Bantin x Simba = Rengga, Uki, Eric, Nicol,Tony, LucySummary:

Nyadi Bantin ‘Ijau Lelayang’ tu manuk sabung Penghulu Ngumbang ‘Berauh Langit’. Menua endor iya ke nyadi manuk sabung tu baka tu:

1. Ngelaban bansa Maluh di Bakul, pati Kapuas.
2. Ngelaban Tekalung ari ili Labuyan ba Nanga Kapar.
3. Ngalah ka Rumah Munau, Sukung ari ili Engkelili.
4. Negah bala Raja di Batu Betanggi, Batang Sumpa dalam Sungai Deluk.
5. Negah bala Raja di Belumbung, menalan Panggau di Ulu Deluk.
6. Enggau Penghulu Kana belangar enggau bala Raja ba Wung Adai Kanowit.
7. Negah bala Raja di Batu Lemak, Ulu Deluk.

Udah iya ka bebunuh babi di Kapit kena 16.5.1907 enggau Munan “Penghulu Dalam”, Bantin mengkang diau di Batang Ai. Nyau tuai umur iya, nya baru iya pindah ka Emperan ke alai iya diguna perintah Belanda lalu selalu kena kumbai perintah lebuh bisi aum besai. Lebuh umor iya nyau tuai, iya rabun lalu parai serta dilumbung ka di Emperan.

Nyadi laban Bantin tu berani mutus, kebal serta enda kala kena lebuh bebunuh, iya maiuh dengah lalu diberi ensumbar “Ijau Lelayang”.

Cronology penyarut enggau pengawa bebaik antara Perintah Raja Carles Brouke enggau Penghulu Bantin “Ijau Lelayang” :

1. Marc 1897 – Bantin Expedition
2. 11/1/1898 – Bantin raids from Delok
3. 9/6/1902 – The Colera Expedition
4. 30/03/1904 – The Bung Kap Encounter, Kanowit
5. June 1904 – Baring Gould’s Expedition against Bantin.
6. 16/5/1907 – Peace-keeping at Kapit with Bantin
7. 1/9/1908 – Expedition against Delok

30. 3.1904 The Bong Kap Encounter, Kanowit, Sir Charles Brooke’s last expedition.

6.1904 Baring Gould’s expedition against Bantin.

5: 1.1905 The Cession of Lawas.

3.1905 Expedition against Lawai in Ulu Limbang.

1. 8.1905 Registration of birds’ nest caves enforced.

21. 6.1906 Suppression of the Orchid Society.

11.1906 Kuching Municipal Office established.

1. 1.1906 Brunei accepts a British Resident.

20. 3.1907 Opening of the Chinese Institute in Kuching.

16. 5.1907 Peace making at Kapit with Bantin.

1. 8.1907 Matang Waterworks start operating.

0.10.1907 Peace making at Kapit.

12.1907 Sungei Tengah estate started.

1908 Sporadic cinema shows in Kuching.

8. 3.1908 Appointment of a British Agent for Sarawak.

6. 6.08 First publication of Sarawak Government Gazette.

1. 9.1908 Expedition against Delok.

1.1909 Separation of S.P.G. dioceses of Sarawak and Singapore.

1. 3.1909 Pavilion opened as Medical Headquarters.

7. 3.1909 Concession to Malaysian Co. at Goebilt.

1. 6.1909 Lunatic asylum opened.

190 9 First export of para rubber: 160 pikuls at $363 per pikul.

22.12.1910 Well No. 1 completed at Miri.

2.1910 Publication of first number of Sarawak Museum Journal.

6.1911 Establishment of Chinese court in Kuching.

1911 Export of para rubber: 500 pikuls at $290 per pikul.

1. 7.1911 Bidi gold works closes.

1911 Selalang kutch factory starts.

25.12.1911 Second Fort Burdette at Mukah inaugurated.

30. 1.1912 Hokkien Free School opens.

1. 4.1912 First motor bus service along Rock Road.

31. 5.1912 Brooke Dockyard opened.

1912 Export of para rubber: 1,453 pikuls at $278 per pikul.

1. 7.1912 Opening of new Chinese Court House (now Chamber of Commerce).

20.11.1912 Constitution of the Sarawak State Advisory Council in England.

13. 2.1913SS. Rajah of Sarawak runs on rocks off Tanjong Sipang.

1. 4.1913 First Shipment of oil from Miri.

9.1913 Shen Won Kie Min Sing Gi Pao, Sarawak’s first weekly journal published.

3.10.1913 Suppression of Shen Won Kie Min Sing Gi Pao.

1914 Sea loading line launched from Tanjong Lobang, Miri.

16. 5.1914 Visit of Japanese cruiser to Kuching.

9.11.1914 New printing office opened (now K.M.C. office).

1. 2.1915 Railway opened to 3rd Mile.

16. 4.1915 British subjects required to carry passports inFrance.

2. 7.1915 Malaysian concession at Goebilt revoked.

18. 8.1915 Railway opened to 7th Mile.

1.11.1915 New Committee of Administration inaugurated.

2.11.1915 Expedition to the Delok and Jigin.

22. 2.1915 The First Gat Expedition.

14. 5.1915 The Mujong Expedition.

9. 4.1916 Railway opened to 10th Mile.

9. 9.1916 Launching of the Lutong sea line (longest in world).

25.10.1916 Morse communication established with Singapore.

23.12.1916 Morse communication established with Miri and Sibu.

2. 4.1916 Nanga Pila expedition.

5. 1.1917 First official message to Singapore by radio.

1917 Railway surveyed to 27th Mile.

17. 5.1917 Death of Rajah Sir Charles Brooke.

24. 5.1917 Proclamation of Rajah Vyner Brooke.

1917 Lutong refinery starts operation.

17. 5.1917 Death of Rajah Sir Charles Brooke.

24. 5.1917 Proclamation of Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke.

8(12.1918 Great Influenza epidemic.

22. 9.1918 Marudi bazaar totally destroyed by fire.

12. 6.1919 Interment of Second Rajah at Burrator.

29. 9.1919 Radio communication established with British North Borneo.

5 4.1919 The Second Gat Expedition.

199 1920 Acute rice shortage with rationing.

18. 3.1920 Two Japanese cruisers visit Kuching.

6.1920 Rubber slump commences.

8. 6.1920 Railway collision in Kuching.

4. 8.1920 Dayak peace making in Simanggang.

2.1921 Discovery of the Limbang Ganesh.

21. 4.1921 Somerset Maugham visits Kuching.

10. 5.1921 Rice decontrolled.

20. 7.1921 Incorporation of Sarawak Oilfields Ltd. tvice Anglo Saxon).

8.1921 Bau gold works close.

11.1921 Establishment of Kuching Sanitary and Municipal Advisory Council.

24: 2.1922 Visit of submarine flotilla to Kuching.

10. 5.1922 Experimental broadcasting in Kuching. 1922 Sheet rubber drops to $11 per pikul.

1922 Opening of pauper camp at 10th Mile.

3. 9.1922 St. Columba’s Church. Miri consecrated.

1. 6.1923 Registration of motor cars and drivers.

15. 6.1923 Electric street lighting in Kuching.

19. 7.1923 The Miri Riot.

1. 2.1924 Peace making at Simanggang.

18. 5.1924 Inaugural meeting of the Sarawak Turf Club.

5.1924 Opening of Leper Settlement on Satang Island.

6.1924 Sarawak Board of Trade established. 1924 Fort Leonora at Engkilili built.

1. 7.1924 Government Opium Monopoly established; registration of smokers.

16.10.1924 Memorial to Second Rajah unveiled.

3.11.1924 Department of Education established.

10.1924 Chartered Bank opens in Kuching.


16.11.1924 Kayan, Kenyah and Iban peace making at Kapit.

7.1925 First Government Dentist appointed. 1925 Extension of railway to 13th Mile.

10.1925 Removal of Leper Camp to 13th Mile, Penrissen Road.

2.11.1925 Opening of St. Teresa’s new school.

7.24/8/26 Aerial survey of Rejang Delta.

2.1926 Sarawak Standard Time established (72 hours ahead of G.M.T.). 1926 Establishment of Rubber Export

Board. 1926 New General Hospital opened. 1926 Sunny Hill School opened.

1927 Iban migration to Sibuti.

In 1927 Sergeant Barat and T.R. Dian anak Kinchang applied for permission from H.H. the Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, to migrate to Sibuti. Their application was approved and Dian went first to live in Sibuti in the same year. In the following year ex-Sergeant Barat came with his followers and joined Dian’s longhouse at Mamut. They lived together at this settlement for five years, and then separated in order to expand their agricultural lands.

After they had separated, Dian and Barat visited the Undup near Simanggang for the purpose of inviting their relatives and friends to migrate with them to Sibuti. After they had persuaded enough followers, they returned to Sibuti. On Dian’s return he moved down to live at Pidek, while Barat and his followers stayed on at Mamut.

In 1927, when Dian and his followers first arrived in Sibuti, the first important thing he did was to cleanse the land with the blood of five pigs as was the Iban custom. Two of the pigs were killed at Nanga Bakas, two at Mamut, and one when Dian built his first longhouse in the land. Three years after he had settled in Sibuti, T.R. Lutin and T.R. Unal followed from Undup. On their arrival Dian and Barat advised T.R. Unal and his followers to live at Kelitang, while T.R. Lutin was told to settle with his people at Kuap in the Ulu Sibuti. In 1927 before H.H. The Rajah approved their application to migrate, he asked them to develop the Sibuti lands for agricultural purposes other than rubber planting. If they obeyed His Highness’s wish, the Rajah promised not to tax their labour. It was because of this command that no land taxes were demanded from these settlers before the Second World War.

During the Japanese occupation many of them planted rubber trees in the area. These trees are today tappable, which gives the Sibuti Iban a little money in addition to the return from their yearly padi crop. All the Iban migrants to Sibuti from the Second Division were animists, or people lapsed from the Anglican Church. The animists still held to their ancestral religion up to a few years ago, at which time the Roman Catholic and Anglican Missions came to proselytize. At present very few have been converted, as they are reluctant to forget their ancestral religion founded by Petara Simpulang Gana, Singalang Burong and Anda Mara, the religion of their ancestors from ages past. They are at the present time still celebrating many traditional festivals, such as the Gawai Batu, Gawai Umai and Gawai Burong.

On their arrival in 1927, the first cemetery they made in Sibuti was Pendam Keseput, where they buried Buli anak Busor, the first man to die in the new country.

Before the Iban migrated to Sibuti from the Saribas River in the Second Division, Nyauh anak Ambok who had married at Malang in the Bakong, Baram, wrote a letter to Orang Kaya Janai, a Miri by race (or Mirek) and a chief of the Sibuti River, to apply for land in this river to which he might migrate.

The Orang Kaya Janai told Nyauh that he would accept him and his followers to come and settle in the Sibuti. After gaining this approval, Nyauh from Malang wrote a letter to his mother Rini at Lubau in the Saribas, telling her that he had found good land for settlement in the Sibuti River. In her reply Rini told Nyauh that she had no intention of leaving Saribas. On learning this Nyauh and his wife visited her in the Saribas, but while they were there his wife died. Due to her death Nyauh completely dismissed the idea of migrating elsewhere.

Some years later, his cousin Jeragan, who lived at Bakong, Baram, wrote a letter to Nyauh. He said, “It will be a great loss to you, if you fail to migrate to the land which has been given to you by Orang Kaya Janai in Sibuti.” On receiving this encouraging letter, Nyauh again urged his mother to migrate with him. “If I fail to take this fertile land in Sibuti, I am sure it will be an irreparable loss to you and me as well as to our future descendants,” said Nyauh to his mother. Hearing her son’s decision, Rini agreed to follow him.

After his mother had agreed to migrate, Nyauh invited Mulok anak Malina and Entering anak Jiram of Lubau to see the new land in the Sibuti. When they came they found that Orang Kaya Janai had died, so they met with his successor, T,K. Haji Mat of Sibuti.

On meeting them, before he could permit their migration, as approved by the late Orang Kaya Jenai, Haji Mat gathered all the Malay, Dale’ and Miri leaders in the Sibuti together. At this meeting these leaders approved the applications of the Undup Iban from the Batang Lupar. To confirm their agreement Haji Mat wrote a letter for the Saribas Dayaks to take to the Resident, Mr. Aplin at Miri.

When Mr. Aplin met them, he sent them back to Sibuti to see Wan (now Tuanku) Bujang, to discuss again the Saribas Iban migration with the Sibuti chiefs. After the discussion was over Wan Bujang directed Abang Entassin to survey the land in the Bakas stream, a left tributary of the Sibuti into which these Iban would migrate. After the land had been surveyed, the Iban were given all the land above the Kedayan settlement at Nanga Bakas.

After the Saribas migration to Sibuti had been agreed to by the Government, Mr. Aplin ordered Nyauh and his followers to return to Saribas via Kuching, in order to bring a letter to the Resident of the First Divison. On their arrival at Kuching, the Resident of the First Division sent them to H.H. The Rajah. They met His Highness who approved of their migration but would not allow them to leave Saribas until ex-Sergeant Barat and his followers had proved that they could live on friendly terms with the indigenous people in Sibuti.

Some weeks after they had arrived at Lubau in the Saribas, a Malay Native Officer called them to the Betong fort. This Officer told them that their application to migrate to Sibuti had been cancelled by the Government. If they wanted his help he told them, he would consult the Government on their behalf. Hearing this, Nyauh became worried. He and his two friends went to Sibuti to ask why they were no longer allowed to migrate after the Rajah had approved the movement. When they came to Sibuti they were told by Wan Bujang that there had been no such change of attitude towards their migration. So they returned to the Saribas. They did not see this Malay Native Officer at Betong fort again.

Three years after ex-Sergeant Barat had migrated to Sibuti, Nyauh and his Saribas Dayaks came to the area by chartered Chinese launch. This launch made three trips to transport them at a total cost of $1,500/-. The price of rubber at this time was $37- per picul. At this time, in 1932, ex-Penghulu Asun, rebel chief of Entabai, was at the height of his power. On their arrival in the Sibuti they first hired land for farming from Wan Mahmud of Nanga Satap. After the harvest was over, they moved up to Nanga Bakas where they made offerings (tasih ai) to the God of water by sacrificing three medium-sized pigs. After this, they built their first longhouse at Tembawai Tinting, inside Kadayan land above Nanga Bakas.

After the Sibuti River had become thickly populated with Second Division Iban, the Rajah appointed ex-Sergeant Barat to be the first Penghulu of the area.

Extract from articles originally written by Benedict Sandin & Professor Clifford Sather.
Re-compile for weblog publication by Gregory Nyanggau Mawar.
Published in the Sarawak Musuem Journal, Volume XLVI, titled “Source of Iban Traditional History”, Part 1, 2 & 3.

27. 6.1927 Third Rajah invested G.C.M.G.

1. 8.1927 New Treasury building opened.

13. 1.1928 Simanggang bazaar destroyed by fire.

7. 3.1928 Sibu bazaar again destroyed by fire.

4.1928 Beginning of cold storage service in Kuching.

26. 9.1928 Order of the Star of Sarawak instituted.

12. 1.1929 Government seaplane Royalist crashes a Simanggang.

23. 3.1929 Appointment of Director of Agriculture.

4.1929 Old hospital becomes the goal.

1. 6.1929 Appointment of Director of Education.

1929 Peak production of Miri Oilfield.

1929 First appearance of the great African snail.

7.1929 Sarikei becomes a district headquarters.

1. 9.1929 Appointment of Secretary for Native Affairs.

10. 9.1929 St. Thomas’s boarding house opened.

12.10.1929 Opening of the Hokkien Free School for Girls.

16.11.1929 Consecration of St. Augustine’s Church, Betong.

11.1929 Junior Cambridge Examination first taken.

3.12.1929 Appointment of Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

8. 2.1930 Chinese General Chamber of Commerce inaugurated.

2.1930 Air Mail Karachi to London commences.

9/12.1930 Daylight saving by advancing clock 20 minutes (Henceforth annual).

24. 9.1930 Simanggang Road reaches Serian.

19.10.1930 Weekly air service Bangkok to Amsterdam.

10.1930 Opening of new Customs Office in Kuching.

11.1930 First candidate for School Certificate Examination (Failed). ‘

1930/31 New Year Regatta at Kuching cancelled because of slump.

24. 4.1931 Consecration of St. Joseph’s Church, Miri.

16. 5.1931 Post of Chief Secretary abolished.

4. 6.1931 Opening of Madrasah Melayu.

1931 Outboard motors in use at Miri.

8.1931 No. 1 R.S.S. drops to $9.66; other grades value less.

9.1931 First performance of sound films in Kuching.

10.1931 New Kuching Police Station opened.

10.1931 New General Post Office opened.

12. 2.1932 Entabai Expedition against Asun.  Rebellion By Penghulu Asun “Bah Tunggal”.___In 1929 Penghulu Asun “Bah Tunggal” of the Entabai and many Iban who supported him refused to pay taxes on shot-guns, pasu, gantang and chupak measures and the daching weight. In their arguments they said it was unreasonable for the Iban, who were not traders (orang dagang) to pay these taxes; they said they owed nothing to the government once they had paid the purchase price. In this trouble Asun was reinforced by Penghulu Kana of Engkari, Kendawang, son of the late Penghulu Janting “Lang Labang” of the Julau, Manang Bakak of the Pakan in Julau, and many young warriors from the Machan, Poi, Ngemah, Kanowit, Julau and the Ulu Batang Ai Rivers.

When the trouble was at its height a lot of unfounded rumours passed up and down the countryside accusing the Resident, District Officers and the Native Officers of having created the trouble which led the Iban to rebel. One of these rumours said that the government had introduced a law that all husbands in the Ulu must pay a tax of fifteen cents per night to sleep with their wives in their family quarters. This false story incited Asun’s ignorant warriors to take their stand at several locations in the Kanowit River where they were met and quelled by government forces.

Ultimately Asun was arrested in 1933. After all the ringleaders had been arrested, or had surren¬dered, the Rajah exiled Asun, Kana, Kendawang and Mikai to Lundu, while Manang Bakak was leniently put in jail at Marudi.

Asun’s Rebellion: The Political Growing Pains of a Tribal Society in Brooke Sarawak, 1929-1940 By ROBERT PRINGLE September 1, 1967

The Roots of Upriver Unrest:___Sarawak does not fit the stock tropical image of swaying palms and lazy warm breezes. Kuching, the capital of Malaysian Borneo’s largest state, lies only 11 degrees from the equator, yet somehow there is little indolence in the air. It is not merely the absence of coral strand (here the coastline is mainly mud and mangrove) or the hyperthyroid energy of the Chinese small farmers and shopkeepers who dominate many of the more thickly settled areas near the coast. Even more in the interior, there is something hard and vital in the air.

In northwest Borneo rivers were traditionally the primary determinants of social loyalties and the main arteries of trade and travel. Everywhere in Sarawak there is still an obvious if not always exact social demarcation between the downriver areas, where Moslem Malay and Chinese population predominates, and the upriver regions of the interior, where the inhabitants are mostly “Dayaks”, pagan tribal people who live in longhouses and cultivate hill rice. This tribal population is divided into many groups, which vary greatly in language and political culture, but one group, the Ibans, or Sea Dayaks, predominates over much of the State and comprises almost one-third of the total Sarawak population.1

In the upriver Iban areas, perhaps more than anywhere else, the usual Western stereotypes of tropical Asia are inappropriate. Most people live by growing hill rice, an energetic occupation if ever there was one. The very countryside is evocative more of Glencoe or America’s Appalachian highlands than of Gauguin’s Tahiti. Typically, the countryside is a tangled welters of forest-covered hills, rising in few areas to heights of more than 3,000 feet, but sufficiently rugged to preclude any easy adoption of irrigated farming. The rivers, until recently the only highways, are a far cry from the sluggish brown waterways which wind among the peat and mangrove swamps nearer the coast. In their upper reaches, streams like the Batang Lupar, Katibas and Kanowit are narrow enough to be completely roofed over by arching, moss-hung branches. Kingfishers swoop beneath the foliage over swift-running waters, which are normally sparkling clear, but cluttered with dangerous rapids and snags. Frequent rains bring sudden floods equally hazardous to the travelers, for whom the water level seems always to be either too high or too low. Even today, with the advantage of modern outboard motors, navigating such streams requires much time and skill. Until very recently, every mile of distance toward the interior bestowed an added measure of independence from whoever claimed to rule all Sarawak.

The Brooke “White Rajahs,” who were the nominal overlords of these rivers until World War II, left a historical legend which has long captivated Western imaginations and which still flourishes among people of all races in Sarawak itself. In this lively tradition they are remembered as benevolent despots who presided over a 48,000 square-mile estate (only 5,000 square miles smaller than all Malaya) in the style of the English squirearchy. By cleansing the coast of pirates and the interior of headhunters, the Brookes first established a degree of rough law and order. Then, by rigorously excluding large plantation agriculture, they protected their people from exploitative European capitalism, at the same time sheltering them from the erosive effects of Western education. According to the legend, this state of affairs endured until after World War II, when the last Brooke Rajah relinquished his patrimony to a British colonial regime more concerned with progress, development, and the like.

There is much evidence to indicate that this view of the past, like most historical myths, contains some truth, but more over simplification. The ancient Chinese ceramics and glass beads of possible Middle Eastern origin, which are still prized by many upriver people, are proof enough that interior Borneo was never wholly isolated from the outside world. At a much more recent time level, it is clear that developments after World War I, particularly the spread of smallholder rubber cultivation, brought a number of new challenges and problems to the interior people and the Brooke regime. The problems were made manifest by an outbreak of political unrest and outlawry which commenced in the Iban country in 1929 and smoldered along until the end of Brooke rule. It was a period which repays study not only for the light it sheds on the character of later Brooke rule, but also for the insight it provides into Iban political behavior, which remains a factor of great importance in Sarawak affairs. Never more than a semi-insurgency, Asun’s “Rebellion” was named for the Iban warrior who was the most famous anti-Government ringleader, and who died only in 1958. read more here

9. 3.1932 Sadong Coal Mine closed.

1932 Oxford Expedition to Borneo in Tinjar.

18. 7.1932 Oxford Expedition arrives.

19.12.1932 B.B.C. Empire Service commences.

31. 3.1933 Sarawak Government Railway closed.

1. 4.1933 Education Department abolished.

24. 5.1933 Fifth Division incorporated in the Fourth.

21. 4.1934 XXIVth Meeting of the Great Council or Council Negeri.

1. 6.1934 Rubber Restriction introduced.

1934 Evangelical missionaries from N.E.I. start work amongst the Muruts.

24.11.1934 Opening of the Sylvia Cinema in Kuching.

1935 Fort Brooke founded at Meluan.

26. 9.1938 Opening of old Kuching Airport.

1. 4.1939 First broadcast in Sarawak (Commentary on the races).

9. 9.1939 Regular broadcasts in English, Malay and Chinese commence.

22. 1.1941 Treaty between Great Britain and Sarawak pro viding for appointment of a British Representative.

24. 9.1941 Enactment of the new constitution.

17.11.1941 First meeting of the Council Negeri under the new constitution.

7.12.1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbour.

16.12.1941 Japanese occupy Miri.

24.12.1941 Japanese occupy Kuching.

14. 8.1945 Japanese surrender.

11. 9.1945 Australian forces liberate Sarawak.___Australian Military Administration (11th September 1945 – 15th April 1946)

There was much to be done immediately after the war. The Japanese prisoners needed to be rounded up and protected from the anger of the local population. Those found guilty received death penalty. When Rajah Vyner returned from Australia in 1946, he announced his intention to cede Sarawak to Britain. The British Government sent two Malay-speaking Members of Parliament to Sarawak to ascertain whether the people wanted cession (the act of ceding or giving up land or rights). The finding was sufficient support for the question of cession to be put before the Council Negri. The motion was subsequently debated for three days in the Council Negri and passed by nineteen votes against sixteen. So Sarawak became a British Crown Colony on 1st July 1946.

15. 4.1946 Proclamation restoring civil government.

1. 7.1946 Cession of Sarawak to the British Crown.__Sarawak as British Colony ( !st July 1946 – 16th September 1963 )_The people in Sarawak had been divided over the question of Cession and a number of people, mostly Malays, were not happy because they still wanted the Brooke family to rule and tried to get the decision reversed. More than 300 government officers resigned in protest against the colonial government’s instruction not to take part in political activity. The climax came in December,1949 when the second Colonial Governor, Mr. Duncan Stewart, was killed by a Malay youth, Rosli Doby helped by a few others in Sibu. Those connected with the assignation were convicted and sentenced to death. The anti-cessionists began to quieten down their activities after this event. Schools began to reopen and bright students were sent to other commonwealth countries to pursue higher education. By mid 50s, more locals were sent abroad for further studies and training in various professions.

In 1960, the United Nation Charter required all Western powers to give up their oversea possessions and Sarawak is no exception. Malaya obtained its independence from the British in 1957. The three Borneo territories, colonies of Sarawak and North Borneo and the British protectorate state of Brunei were asked to form political parties to get ready for independence. In Sarawak, political parties were formed along racial lines and they were always suspicious of each other.


3 responses

  1. ETNIK: Iban dalam kronologi Sarawak | Iban Universal…

    […]Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. [“Sida ka enda ingatka sejarah lama laun sigi ngulang penyalah aki ini kelia”][…]…

  2. can i ask to clarify :
    LImbang Division established on what year?

    1. …………. The British Government also refused to approve the ceding of Limbang. But Charles Brooke seized Limbang by force on 17th March 1890. The British Government did send Noel Trevenan to lead a mission to investigate the actual situation. Trevenan accompanied by Brooke’s officials met with 15 local chiefs and reported that 12 of them were in favour. But later it was realised that another 18 chiefs were not present at the meeting and those that were present were Brooke’s supporters and they therefore did not represent all the people of Limbang. Sultan Hashim rejected their findings. Sultan Hashim was greatly disappointed and he continued his protests. He even wrote to the Sultan of Turkey imploring for help but the letter was seized by the British. Sultan Hashim tried to do many things when he was the Sultan. Peter Blundell in his book The City of Many Waters wrote about the Sultan. He described the Sultan as someone who was “heavily in debt and almost certainly without means of support. If he had been given a fair chance, he certainly would have been a great King”.

      Sultan Hashim was concerned about Brunei’s economy. At that time, Brunei was heavily dependent on cutch for its foreign income. He even visited the cutch factory where he expressed hopes that the factory will continue to be successful and to continue providing employment to locals. Sultan Hashim tried to issue the first modern coinage for Brunei in 1886.

      Sultan Hashim also tried to introduce a postal service in 1895. Unfortunately the man he gave the concessions to produce the stamps and run the postal services had other ideas and did not fulfil his contract fully. Sultan Hashim’s efforts to get the private sector to run the postal services would be recognisable now as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) initiative.

      Poultney Bigelow writing for Harper Magazine in the early 1900s entitled his article The Last of a Great Sultan when he wrote about Sultan Hashim then. The Sultan’s face was described as very kindly and his manner dignified. Peter Blundell wrote of Sultan Hashim as having “a first-class brain, albeit illiterate, might have proved an outstanding ruler.” Sultan Hashim died on 10th May 1906. He did enough to save Brunei from extinction.

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