Raban Dayak Borneo


  1. AHE (AHE DAYAK, DAYAK AHE) [AHE] 30,000 (1990 UBS). Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Work in progress.
  2. AMPANANG [APG] 30,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central, southeast of Tunjung, around Jambu and Lamper. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, Mahakam. Survey needed.
  3. AOHENG (PENIHING) [PNI] 2,630 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central near Sarawak border. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Survey needed.
  4. BAHAU [BHV] 3,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, north and southeast of Busang. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. Survey needed.
  5. BAKUMPAI (BARA-JIDA) [BKR] 40,000 or more (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Kapuas and Barito rivers, northeast of Kualakapuas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, South. Dialects: BAKUMPAI, MENGKATIP (MANGKATIP, OLOH MENGKATIP). Related to Ngaju, Kahayan, Katingan. Survey needed.
  6. BANJAR (BANJARESE, BANDJARESE, BANJAR MALAY) [BJN] 2,100,000 in Indonesia (1993 Johnstone); 3,000,000 in all countries (1993 J. Collins); 1.2% of the population (1989); 800,000 in Hulu, 700,000 in Kuala (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Around Banjarmasin in the south and east, and one pocket on east coast south of the Kelai River mouth. Also in Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Dialects: KUALA, HULU. Needs intelligibility testing with Malay and Indonesian. Strongly influenced by Javanese. Settled 800 to 1000 A.D. Muslim. Survey needed.
  7. BASAP [BDB] 17,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Kalimantan scattered throughout Bulungan, Sangkulirang, and Kutai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Rejang-Sajau. Dialects: JEMBAYAN, BULUNGAN, BERAU, DUMARING, BINATANG, KARANGAN. Cave-dwellers. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.
  8. BEKATI’ (BAKATIQ) [BAT] 4,000 (1986 UBS). Northwestern near Sarawak border, around Sambas and Selvas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.
  9. BENYADU’ [BYD] 45,000 possibly (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwestern near Sarawak border, around Tan, Darit. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Survey needed.
  10. BIATAH (BIDEYU, SIBURAN, LUNDU, LANDU) [BTH] 20,100 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest Kalimantan, on Sarawak border. Mainly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. May be distinct from Biatah of Sarawak. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1963. Bible portions 1887-1912.
  11. BOLONGAN (BULUNGAN) [BLJ] 15,000 (1989). Northeast, around Tanjungselor, lower Kayan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawak, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. May be a dialect of Tidong or Segai. Classification uncertain. Traditional religion. Survey needed.
  12. BUKAR SADONG (SADONG, TEBAKANG, BUKA, BUKAR, SERIAN, SABUTAN) [SDO] 34,600 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Also Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Dialects: BUKAR SADONG, BUKAR BIDAYUH (BIDAYUH, BIDAYAH).
  13. BUKAT [BVK] 400 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central near Sarawak border, Kapuas River, southeast of Mendalam, 3 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Survey needed.
  14. BUKITAN (BAKITAN, BAKATAN, BEKETAN, MANGKETTAN, MANKETA, PAKATAN) [BKN] 410 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Iwan River, on the Sarawak border. Also in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Dialects: PUNAN UKIT, PUNAN BUSANG. Christian. Survey needed.
  15. BURUSU [BQR] 6,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, around Sekatakbunyi, north of Sajau Basap language. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Rejang-Sajau. Survey needed.
  16. DAYAK, LAND [DYK] 57,619 (1981). Western Kalimantan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Dialects: KARAGAN (KARANGAN), SIDIN (SIDING, SINDING), MERATEI (MERETEI), SAU (SAUH, BIRATAK), SERMAH (BIONAH), BERANG, SABUNGO, SANTAN, GURGO, SINAN, SUMPO, BUDANOH, SERING, GUGU, MATAN, TEMILA, BEHE, IPOH, MANYUKAI (MENJUKE, MENYUKAI, MANYUKE, MANUKAI), PUNAN (BUNAN, MURANG PUNAN, PENYABUNG PUNAN, BUSANG, DJULOI), KATI, BETA. There may be several languages represented among the dialects listed. All Land Dayak in Sarawak are covered by separate listings. Bible portions 1935. Survey needed.
  17. DJONGKANG [DJO] 45,000 possibly (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, south of Balai Sebut. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Survey needed.
  18. DOHOI (OT DANUM, UUT DANUM, UUD DANUM) [OTD] 80,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori) including 2,700 Ulu Ai’. Extensive area south of the Schwaner Range on the upper reaches of south Borneo rivers. The Ulu Ai’ are on the Mandai River with 7 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, North. Dialects: OT BALAWAN, OT BANU’U, OT MURUNG 1 (MURUNG 1, PUNAN RATAH), OT OLANG, OT TUHUP, SARAWAI (MELAWI), DOHOI, ULU AI’ (DA’AN). Dohoi and Murung 1 may be separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian. Selections 1982. Work in progress.
  19. DUSUN DEYAH (DEAH, DEJAH) [DUN] 20,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeast, Tabalong River northeast of Bongkang. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, Central-South, Central. Survey needed.
  20. DUSUN MALANG [DUQ] 10,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central, west of Muarainu, northeast of Muarateweh. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, Central-South, South. Closest to Ma’anyan, Paku, Dusun Witu, and Malagasy. Survey needed.
  21. DUSUN WITU [DUW] 25,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeast, regions of Pendang and Buntokecil; south of Muarateweh. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, Central-South, South. Closest to Ma’anyan, Paku, Dusun Malang, Malagasy. Survey needed.
  22. EMBALOH (MBALOH, MALOH, MALO, MEMALOH, MATOH, PARI, PALIN, SANGAU, SANGGAU) [EMB] 10,000 (1991 NTM). West central, Hulu Kapuas Regency, just south of the Sarawak border, upper Kapuas River: Embaloh, Leboyan, Lauh, Palin, Nyabau, Mandai, and Kalis tributaries. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Mbaloh. Dialect: KALIS (KALIS MALOH, KALIS DAYAK). Complex of ethnic groups: Taman of upper Kapuas Rer, Suai, Taman Mendalem, Taman Sibau, Palin, Lauk, Leboyan, Kalis Dayak. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.
  23. HOVONGAN (PUNAN BUNGAN) [HOV] 1,000 (1991 NTM). North central near Sarawak border, 2 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Dialects: HOVONGAN, SEMUKUNG UHENG. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.
  24. IBAN (SEA DAYAK) [IBA] 415,000 in all countries (1995 P. Martin); 1,000,000 including second language users (1995 WA). Also in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia, and Brunei. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak, Ibanic. Dialects: BATANG LUPAR, BUGAU, SEBERUANG, KANTU’, DESA, KETUNGAU (AIR TABUN, SIGARAU, SEKALAU, SEKAPAT, BANJUR, SEBARU’, DEMAM, MAUNG). Seberuang (20,000 speakers on the Kapuas River) may be a separate language. Typology: SVO. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1988. NT 1933-1952. Bible portions 1864-1968.
  25. KAHAYAN (KAHAIAN, KAHAJAN) [XAH] 45,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Kapuas and Kahayan rivers, south central, northeast of Ngaju. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, South. Related to Ngaju, Katingan, and Bakumpai. Survey needed.
  26. KATINGAN [KXG] 45,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Katingan River, south central. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, South. Related to Ngaju, Kahayan, and Bakumpai. Survey needed.
  27. KAYAN MAHAKAM [XAY] 1,300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central, Mahakam River, 2 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. A mixture of Kayan and Ot Danum (Dohoi). Survey needed.
  28. KAYAN, BUSANG (KAJAN, KAJANG, BUSANG) [BFG] 3,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). On the upper Mahakam, Oga, and Belayan rivers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. Dialects: MAHAKAM BUSANG, BELAYAN, LONG BLEH. Christian, traditional religion. Survey needed.
  29. KAYAN, KAYAN RIVER (KAYAN RIVER KAJAN, KAJANG) [XKN] 2,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Kayan River, 2 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. Dialects: UMA LAKAN, KAYANIYUT KAYAN. Survey needed.
  30. KAYAN, MENDALAM (MENDALAM KAJAN) [XKD] 1,500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central, northeast of Putus Sibau, Mendalam River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. Survey needed.
  31. KAYAN, WAHAU (WAHAU KAJAN) [WHU] 500 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, north of Muara Wahau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Kayan. Survey needed.
  32. KELABIT (KALABIT, KERABIT) [KZI] 1,650 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Remote mountains, on Sarawak border, northwest of Longkemuat. Mainly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Dialect: LON BANGAG. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: paddy and hill rice. Part Christian. Bible portions 1965.
  33. KEMBAYAN [XEM] 45,000 possibly (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, near Sarawak border, around Balaikarangan, Kembayan, Landak River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Survey needed.
  34. KENDAYAN (BAICIT, KENDAYAN-AMBAWANG, KENDAYAN DAYAK) [KNX] 150,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Kalimantan Barat, northeast of Bengkayang in the Ledo area, extending into the jungle area of Madi and Papan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak. Dialects: AMBAWANG, KENDAYAN. Indonesian is well understood only by the few who have had at least a 6th grade education. Survey needed.
  35. KENINJAL (KANINJAL DAYAK, DAYAK KANINJAL, KANINJAL) [KNL] 35,000 (1990 UBS). West central, Sayan and Melawi rivers, around Nangapinoh, Nangaella, Nangasayan, Gelalak. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak. Work in progress.
  36. KENYAH, BAHAU RIVER (BAHAU RIVER KENYA) [BWV] 1,500 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, on Sarawak border, around Longkemuat, Iwan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah, Main Kenyah. Dialects: LONG ATAU, LONG BENA, LONG PUYUNGAN. Survey needed.
  37. KENYAH, BAKUNG (BAKUNG, BAKUNG KENYA, BAKONG) [BOC] 2,000 in all countries (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, near the Sarawak border, Oga River and southeast of Datadian, and around Kubumesaai. Also in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah. Dialects: BOH BAKUNG, OGA BAKUNG, KAYAN RIVER BAKUNG. Muslim. Survey needed.
  38. KENYAH, KAYAN RIVER (KAYAN RIVER KENYA, KENYA, KENJA, KENYAH, KINJIN, KINDJIN, KEHJA) [KNH] 6,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Apo Kayan highlands where Kayan River begins, Iwan River, and around Longbia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah, Main Kenyah. Dialects: LOWER KAYAN KENYAH, LONGBIA, KAYANIYUT KENYAH, LONG NAWAN, LONG KELAWIT. Christian. NT 1978. Bible portions 1956-1957.
  39. KENYAH, KELINYAU (KELINYAU, KELINJAU, KENJA, KENYAH, KENYA, KINJIN, KINDJIN, KEHJA) [XKL] 1,200 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Kinjau River, around Long Laes, and Telen River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah, Main Kenyah. Dialects: UMA BEM, UMA TAU, LEPO’ KULIT, UMA JALAM. Survey needed.
  40. KENYAH, MAHAKAM (MAHAKAM KENYA, KENYA, KENJA, KENYAH, KINJIN, KINDJIN, KEHJA) [XKM] 7,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, east of Bahau, and on Mahakam River, 5 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah, Main Kenyah. Dialects: MAHAKAM KENYAH, BOH. Survey needed.
  41. KENYAH, UPPER BARAM (UPPER BARAM KENJA, KENJA, KENYAH, KINJIN, KANYAY, KINDJIN) [UBM] 2,660 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Border with Sarawak, northwest of Longkemuat. Mainly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah, Main Kenyah. Survey needed.
  42. KENYAH, WAHAU (WAHAU KENYA) [WHK] 1,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, north of Muara Wahau and Wahau Kayan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah. Dialect: UMA TIMAI. Survey needed.
  43. KEREHO-UHENG (PUNAN KERIAU) [XKE] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central near Sarawak border, south of Bukat and Hovongan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Survey needed.
  44. LARA’ (LURU) [LRA] 12,000 in all countries (1981 CBFMS). Upper Lundu and Sambas rivers, around Bengkayang east of Gunung Pendering, and farther north, Pejampi and two other villages. Also Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Traditional religion.
  45. LAWANGAN (LUWANGAN, NORTHEAST BARITO) [LBX] 100,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Around the Karau River in east central Kalimantan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, North. Dialects: TABUYAN (TABOYAN, TABOJAN, TABOJAN TONGKA), AJUH, BAKOI (LAMPUNG), BANTIAN (BENTIAN), BANUWANG, BAWU, KALI, KARAU (BELOH), LAWA, LOLANG, MANTARAREN, NJUMIT, PURAI, PURUNG, TUWANG, PASIR, BENUA. At least 17 dialects. Tawoyan may be inherently intelligible. Survey needed
  46. LENGILU [LGI] 10 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, between Sa’ban and Lundayeh. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Nearly extinct.
  47. LUNDAYEH (SOUTHERN MURUT, LUN DAYE, LUN DAYAH, LUN DAYA, LUN DAYOH, LUNDAYA) [LND] 25,000 in Kalimantan (1987); 10,000 in Sarawak, Malaysia (1987); 2,800 in Sabah, Malaysia (1982 SIL); 450 in Brunei (1987); 38,250 in all countries. Interior about 4 degrees north from Brunei Bay to headwaters of Padas River, to headwaters of Baram and into Kalimantan, Indonesian mountains where tributaries of Sesayap River arise. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Dialects: LUN DAYE, PAPADI, LUN BAWANG (LONG BAWAN, SARAWAK MURUT). Most speakers live in Indonesia. Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Christian (Lunbawang, some Lundayeh), traditional religion (others). Bible 1982. NT 1962. Bible portions 1947.
  48. MA’ANYAN (MAANYAK DAYAK, MA’ANJAN, SIANG) [MHY] 70,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South around Tamianglayang, area of the drainage of Patai River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, Central-South, South. Dialects: SAMIHIM (BULUH KUNING), SIHONG (SIONG), DUSUN BALANGAN. Related to Malagasy. Traditional religion. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1950.
  49. MALAYIC DAYAK [XDY] 520,000 including 300 Tapitn, 100,000 (?) Banana’, 100,000 (?) Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Banana’ and Tapitn are western, between Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya; Kayung and Delang are southern, between Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja; Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk are eastern, southeast of Kapuas River from Sintang to Putus Sibau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak. Dialects: TAPITN, BANANA’, KAYUNG (KAYONG), DELANG, SEMITAU, SUHAID, MENTEBAH-SURUK. May constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Selako, Kendaya, and Keninjal. Work in progress.
  50. MALAY, BERAU (BERAU, MERAU MALAY) [BVE] 20,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central coastal area, Tanjungreder and Muaramalinau in the north to Sepinang in the south. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Shares phonological innovations with Kutai Malay, Banjar, and Brunei. Survey needed.
  51. MALAY, BUKIT (BUKIT, MERATUS) [BVU] 50,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeastern, Sampanahan River, northwest of Limbungan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Traditional religion. Survey needed.
  52. MALAY, KOTA BANGUN KUTAI [MQG] 80,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Mahakam River basin. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Not intelligible with Tenggarong Kutai Malay. May be intelligible with Northern Kutai. Survey needed.
  53. MALAY, TENGGARONG KUTAI (KUTAI, TENGGARONG) [VKT] 210,000, including 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Mahakam River basin, east central coastal area, from Sepinang and Tg. Mangkalihat in the north to Muarabadak and Samarinda in the south. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Dialects: TENGGARONG KUTAI, ANCALONG KUTAI, NORTHERN KUTAI. Many dialects. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun are not inherently intelligible. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay, Banjar, and Brunei. Survey needed.
  54. MODANG [MXD] 15,300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Around Segah, Kelinjau, and Belayan rivers in northeast Kalimantan, 5 areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Modang. Dialects: KELINGAN (LONG WAI, LONG WE), LONG GLAT, LONG BENTO’, BENEHES, NAHES, LIAH BING. Survey needed.
  55. MUALANG [MTD] 10,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Along the Ayak and Belitang Rivers, about 200 miles upstream from Pontianak. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak, Ibanic. Closely related to Iban. Survey needed.
  56. NGAJU (NGADJU, NGAJU DAYAK, BIADJU, SOUTHWEST BARITO) [NIJ] 250,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers, south. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, South. Dialects: PULOPETAK, KAPUAS (NGAJU, BARA-DIA), BA’AMANG (BARA-BARE, SAMPIT), MANTANGAI (OLOH MANGTANGAI). Related to Katingan, Kahayan, Bakumpai. Trade language for most of Kalimantan, from the Barito to the Sampit rivers, east of the Barito languages, and north in the Malawi River region. Bible 1858-1955. NT 1846, in press (1996). Bible portions 1897-1905.
  57. NYADU (NJADU, BALANTIANG, BALANTIAN) [NXJ] 9,000. West and north Kalimantan, Landak, tributary of Sambas River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Similar to Lara’ spoken along upper Lundu and Sambas Rivers. Bible portions 1952. Survey needed.
  58. OKOLOD (KOLOD, KOLOUR, KOLUR, OKOLOD MURUT) [KQV] 2,000 to 3,500 in all countries (1985 SIL). Northeast along Sabah border, east of Lumbis, north of Lundayeh. Primarily Kalimantan and Sarawak, Malaysia, and some in Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.
  59. PAKU [PKU] 20,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeast, south of Ampah. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, Central-South, South. Closest to Ma’anyan, Malagasy, Dusun Malang, Dusun Witu. Survey needed.
  60. PUNAN APUT (APUT) [PUD] 370 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, west and north of Mt. Menyapa. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Survey needed.
  61. PUNAN MERAH [PUF] 137 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Mahakam River, east of Ujohhilang. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Distinct from Punan Merap. Survey needed.
  62. PUNAN MERAP [PUC] 200 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, east of Longkemuat. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Rejang-Sajau. Distinct from Punan Merah. Survey needed.
  63. PUNAN TUBU [PUJ] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung rivers, 8 locations. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Kenyah. May not be a Kenyah language. Survey needed.
  64. PUTOH [PUT] 6,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, east of Lundayeh and Sa’ban, Mentarang River, around Longberang, Mensalong, and Bangalan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Dialects: PA KEMBALOH, ABAI. Survey needed.
  65. RIBUN [RIR] 45,000 possibly (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, south of Kembayan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Survey needed.
  66. SA’BAN [SNV] 1,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast on Sarawak border, south of Lundayeh. Also in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Bible portions 1969. Survey needed.
  67. SAJAU BASAP (SAJAU, SUJAU) [SAD] 6,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, northeast of Muaramalinau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Rejang-Sajau. Dialects: PUNAN SAJAU, PUNAN BASAP, PUNAN BATU2. Distinct from Basap, but related. Survey needed.
  68. SANGGAU [SCG] 45,000 possibly (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwestern, around Sanggau, Kapuas River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Survey needed.
  69. SARA [SRE] Smaller than Lara. Near Sanggau-Ledo northeast of Ledo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Some dialect differences but one written form can serve. Work in progress.
  70. SEBERUANG [SBX] 20,000 (1993 UBS). Kapuas River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak, Ibanic. Typology: SVO. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.
  71. SEGAI [SGE] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Kelai River and around Longlaai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Kayan-Murik, Modang. Dialects: KELAI, SEGAH. Bolongan may be a dialect. Survey needed.
  72. SELAKO (SELAKO DAYAK, SALAKAU, SILAKAU) [SKL] 100,000 in Kalimantan (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 3,800 in Sarawak, Malaysia (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, around Pemangkat. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak. Mainly traditional religion.
  73. SELUNGAI MURUT [SLG] 800 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 300 in Sabah (1990 SIL). Along the upper reaches of the Sembakung River, east of Lumbis. Also in Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.
  74. SEMANDANG [SDM] 30,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West central, around Balaiberkuwak, north of Sandai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Land Dayak. Dialects: SEMANDANG, GERAI, BEGINCI, BIHAK. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1982. Work in progress.
  75. SEMBAKUNG MURUT (SIMBAKONG, SEMBAKOENG, SEMBAKONG, TINGGALAN, TINGGALUM, TINGALUN) [SMA] 5,000 in all countries (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Along the Sembakung River in northern Kalimantan, from the mouth, into Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.
  76. SIANG (OT SIANG) [SYA] 60,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, east of Dohoi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, West, North. Dialects: SIANG, MURUNG2. Related to Dohoi. Survey needed.
  77. TAGAL MURUT (SUMAMBU-TAGAL, SUMAMBU, SUMAMBUQ, SEMEMBU, SEMAMBU) [MVV] 2,000 Alumbis in Kalimantan; 28,000 to 48,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1987 SIL); 30,000 to 50,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Along the Pegalan Valley, Alumbis River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Dialects: RUNDUM (ARUNDUM), TAGAL (TAGOL, NORTH BORNEO MURUT, SABAH MURUT), SUMAMBU (SEMEMBU, SUMAMBUQ), TOLOKOSON (TELEKOSON), SAPULOT MURUT (SAPULUT MURUT), PENSIANGAN MURUT (PENTJANGAN, TAGAL, TAGUL, TAGOL, TAGGAL, LAGUNAN MURUT), ALUMBIS (LUMBIS, LOEMBIS), TAWAN, TOMANI (TUMANIQ), MALIGAN (MAULIGAN, MELIGAN, BOL MURUT, BOLE MURUT). NT 1984-1991. Bible portions 1965-1990.
  78. TAMAN (TAMAN DAYAK, DAYAK TAMAN) [TMN] 5,000 to 6,000 (1991 NTM). North central, Kapuas River in the area directly upriver from Putussibau, and the Mendalam and Sibau tributaries. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Mbaloh. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.
  79. TAUSUG (TAW SUG, SULU, SULUK, SOOLOO, TAUSOG, TAOSUG, MORO JOLOANO, JOLOANO SULU) [TSG] 12,000 in Kalimantan (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 330,000 in the Philippines (1975 census); 110,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1982 SIL); 492,000 in all countries (1981 Parshall). 500,000 others speak it as second language in the Philippines (1986 SIL). Settlements along the coast of northeastern Kalimantan, immigrants from the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Fishermen. Muslim. NT 1985. Bible portions 1918-1993.
  80. TAWOYAN (TAWOYAN DAYAK, TABOYAN, TABUYAN, TABOJAN, TABOJAN TONGKA) [TWY] 20,000 (?) (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Central around Palori. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, East, North. May be inherently intelligible with Lawangan. Survey needed.
  81. TIDONG (CAMUCONES, TIDUNG, TEDONG, TIDOENG, TIRAN, TIRONES, TIROON, ZEDONG) [TID] 25,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 9,800 in Malaysia. Population center is along Sembakung and Sibuka Rivers of eastern Kalimantan, coast and islands around Tarakan and interior, Malinau River. Also Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. Dialects: NONUKAN (NUNUKAN), PENCHANGAN, SEDALIR (SALALIR, SADALIR, SARALIR, SELALIR), TIDUNG, TARAKAN (TERAKAN), SESAYAP (SESAJAP), SIBUKU.
  82. TUNJUNG (TUNJUNG DAYAK) [TJG] 50,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central, between Adas, Dempar, Melak, and east around the lake; south around Muntaiwan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Barito, Mahakam. Dialects: TUNJUNG (TUNJUNG TENGAH), TUNJUNG LONDONG, TUNJUNG LINGGANG, PAHU. Work in progress.

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